Zimbabwe political Cinderella sequels up until 2013 (Part 2)

via ZIMBABWE POLITICAL CINDERELLA SEQUELS UP UNTIL 2013 (Part two) January 16, 2014  By Andrew M Manyevere

Let me open this part of the narration with a bald statement of truth that: A mercenary attitude is ruining the perception and development of governance affairs on Africa generally and Zimbabwe in particular due to overstayed dictatorial leadership that is sustained through the use of corrupt military force, either directly or indirectly. Leadership has forgotten they have constitutional terms after which they ought to vacate power voluntarily. Their speeches and talk generally sound as if they own the countries, including people and the wealthy. Governance has been reduced to a joke of the twentieth century. The ownership of government by dictators is an embarrassing behavioural phenomenon. Other than avarice and open greedy for power, African tradition is no explanation to this unfortunate behaviour from dictators. It is so embarrassing that only a few Africans would admit that it is a complex human leadership behavioural gap that compensate for ego acquired from crushing of opponents, just like a Chimpanzee fear and self-preservation instinct when invented by another/other chimpanzee/s.  The extremely harsh animal behaviour phenomenal can only have destructive impact on and cruel victimizing of innocent citizens who often invest their time in building transparently economic structures for employment creation. This has defaced the image, the politics and governance process on Africa.

As a result of both ignorance and fear to face the unpredictable African leaderships’ wrath, refugee status away from home explains the only reasonable way as an alternate to people facing slaughter without defense from greedy leadership. The paralysis holds Africa to ransom, while corrupt leadership prefer it to remain that way in order for them to maximize their aggrandizement on wealth. The Zimbabwe Political Cinderella sequels theoretical framework hopes to ignite a series of serious research initiatives, among Zimbabweans, that should cast down the legacies on the decayed and corrupt records of management by the Mugabes (Zimbabwe), the Eduardo dos Santos (Angola) and the Musevenis (Uganda) and many others of this world. As is and given African position to both elections in Kenya and Zimbabwe in 2013, failure to work on a strong frame of strategy apart from violence to resist dictatorship.

Time has to be clearly marked as a desired leadership political strategy to produce changes needed to radically transform dictatorial old styles, thrusting healing upon the perception gaps coerced on minds of people by these dictators. People are stigmatized into accepting failure by giving up the spirit to master causes of failure in order to generate new energy that redirect values towards transforming failure into a success story. This political reorientation saw Malaysian economy energized through both democratic and creative leadership styles. By prolonging his stay in power, Mugabe and his corrupt surrogates have denied the success opportunity for Zimbabwe and its people since they force a perception that they are the only pillar of the liberation outlet.  Once a few Zimbabweans outside and inside master the conceptual framework of change synergies required, implementation progress will be achieved through a quantitative, progressive development on human mind to admire what is morally right and safe for every citizen. Currently people admire getting wealth in any way or shape. Truth be told Zanu has shared a corrupt way of achieving that end through, racism, plunder, stealing justifying it with gains of the liberations struggle. Destruction can only serve for its masters and never for every one equally. Divisions have been planted by leaders deliberately to divide and rule to give corruption a success face.

Centrifugal forces on tribal emotions have been exaggerated and used out of context to promote corruption above patriotic perceptions, understanding and values. Countries have been split into sections that render a nation incapable of producing a budget since the vision is for self-aggrandizement from the meagre available or incoming resources. It is asking too much for Zanu to share a vision on building and maintaining of the roads, on getting affordable housing and industry for creation of employment opportunities. Dictators, have in theory, ideologically divorced themselves from the west as a scapegoat for their faithful surrogates calling them revolutionary and progressive. This deception under develops sincerity as an attitude for genuine replacing it with mercenary mind that is cruel even to one’s own relatives. This has kept Africa under developed.

Africa has, without clear direction, and in particular Zimbabwe run away from the none-alignment philosophy married themselves into a political estranged matrimony with the east with the aim to isolate the west. Staying away from the west has meant a loss on efficiency standards and encouraged instead the ‘birth of an illegitimate child’ commonly called Corruption increasing also love for nepotism. These negative political forces left Zimbabwe totally bankrupt just prior to 2008 elections.

We have to concede here too that Corruption has aggressively crippled the capacity of citizens to naturally relate to efficiency and good standards without wishing to blame for blame sake on the west. Black market have replaced open marketing systems in order to make rich the black masters in the hope this would reverse the colonial past. The emotion of viewing exploitation from a race advantage justified the reverse as black empowerment. What was required and still is required is not empowerment for its own sake, but for the sake of creating opportunities for every one able bodied to work and receive a normal day’s wage in a climate of plain level atmosphere.   The process need to be achieved in stages as work-in-progress in order to remove inefficiency that has combined with corruption. The process has to replace identifiable elements of corruption based inefficiency with hard facts of economics based on accountable methods that promote and develop integrity and responsibility values in citizens. The mastering of implementation techniques for an accountable ownership management style can be used by a new crop of citizens to help change values from personal robbery from government to returning income tax, contributing to the country’s development through the national fiscus.

The regulatory procedures in stewardship will naturally encourage the elimination of Corruption initiating instead a self-worthy individual pride based on contribution as a way of economic reconstruction. While the elimination of corruption process will be painful, it, however, has to be based on a strong and practical education program which will helps people build inner resilience to mentally battle with the surrogates of the exploitative machinery. The government surrogates who in this case happen to be the petite bourgeoisies and their chain network of the masses, who though in abject poverty, are deceived and blindly supportive of corruption as consumer base will always try and threaten as before the logical thinking citizens with reprisals. . It is the work of training that combines both discipline and pertinent educational values for building ideological framework on which NATIONAL INTEREST is founded.

Romanticising of politics into sloganeering, while good, should work in phases so people can reflect on where they have come in contrast to where they want to go. To the extent that politics is personalized and that people cannot or are not allowed to wonder away from an individual’s name, even that individual is failing the nation; is tribute to how narrow minded leadership has preoccupied itself with tribal wars and individual wealth accumulation than on developing pillars of growing the economy. This is caused when leaders surround themselves with incompetent persons, who contribute to leadership survival syndrome than to an institutional development approach supportive of positive growth syndrome. In Zimbabwe, discourse has failed to change the system from individual leadership styles based on cult veneration culture whose strong incentive is corruption.

Irrespective of the funding a government may receive, the traditional nationalism system, due to lacking in the culture of discipline and control, has always failed. Zimbabwe, for example, squeezed out thinking and experimental initiatives on change management by banning critical and evaluative writing except as one agrees and supports the party and president Mugabe. It handicapped new insights on and love for change in leadership as part of a democratic challenge to appreciate changes on leadership level as relevant and essential for growth and development of a country. As it were, citizens were fed on ZBC propaganda that sought them to worship one leader, president R G Mugabe. Politically people were under developed from fear of being arrested and falsely accused and imprisoned or killed as politically opposing Zanu. This fear is real in Zimbabwe irrespective of what Zanu leadership can say. Sometimes the puzzle is that these leaders joke with people’s lives as if it were lives of chicken or small ordinary birds. When leaders show no care or concern of people security they regard them as enemies. It takes very sober approach to consider what you perceive as enemies as equal with you or deserving of same respect and treatment as yourself. Mugabe should have left power in the first ten years of his rule. The people would have evaluated the system by leadership performance and think of limitations on leadership terms as a democratic process. We can talk of democracy all we want, Zimbabweans may be wondering whether that is a true statement or wishful thinking given the mood Zanu has employed and spend government money to protect Robert Mugabe as president.

Talent regeneration is a leadership tool in identifying, training and assessing those good for leadership. Who in Zanu has courage to talk of Mugabe’s weakness and from where does he carry the evaluative program? If we have to appreciate development we must accept appreciating failure as well. How can we accuse everybody except for Robert Mugabe, when actually he is the main culprit of the country’s failure to perform, originate programs or direct them for economic recovery? Zimbabwe Political Cinderella sequel argument should help young and corruption disoriented individuals as a projectory for future basis of a political strategy that fights for change of bad habits grown on cheap deceptive systems that hang on archaic slogans of mimicry. When you mimic you can easily abandon an idea because it is not original in you. Zanu’s political philosophy of violence as the driver of motivating thinking and creativity has never worked anywhere, even though it still desperately hold to it.

Terror breeding fear methods are the worst weapon Zanu has and is indiscriminately applying on citizens, diverting and denying leadership think realistically and instead grow a mind set to running government by force of violence than through education and persuasion.  Subsequently, people’s fears on the unknown based on Zanu’s unpredictable leadership styles made and continue to make citizens ask: “what will it be like when Mugabe is gone?’” This is a loyalist outlook while the rebellious or the politically fatigued outlook will be:” who cares?”   Yet in my pleading on education as a tool for use in order to bring long term and effective change, I suggest this spiritual comparative, as a relevant example. When Jesus left this earth for heaven he did not leave people without direction. He intimated to his disciples that when he is gone, he will send them the Holly Spirit who will guide them in every aspect of life. He also assured them of a place to stay when he returns to receive them to himself.

Confidence on direction and assurance on future security are tools used to groom stability of a community, company or a nation. As a result communities have worked ways of sustaining continuity through succession. Families, for example, have wills available to prevent family disorder through disputes on heritage. By the same token, if provision for inheritance exist at house and family levels, why should Zanu fail to provide a clear succession plan which should have been tested and worked three if not four times already?  It is because the system is corrupted and cannot deliver results. It is a system shrouded in uncertainties because leaders corruptly appoint their people who work to support them stay in power and to rule for ever. The system has no objectivity and suffers from any consistent direction except work on people to accept a leader and to appear indispensable. The surrogates to a corrupt system, because they know they are not wanted and do not serve people equally, are mercenary when they deal with honesty citizens.

Zanu Central Committee failed to provide political and economic direction for either their political party leadership succession plan or the country economic development plan. Zanu has and will be remembered for terror loaded political processes that factored fraud and cheating in electoral processes including openly beating of citizens for sharing different political opinions to Zanu. Zanu survived on methods that thrive on corruption and lost the struggle goals against poverty, joblessness, illness, immorality and abuse of people. Zanu, instead has successfully created politically smothering institutions that safeguard corruption sustaining incompetent leadership. This was achieved, in part, through institutionalization of the ex-combatants, ex-detainees, Mujibas, people militia (to replace ex-combatants in time) and the list of the evil machinations has no end. What Zanu did not anticipate was how long the institutionalizing of her ‘new’ political dispensation would take and whether or not it would guarantee them success. The country stopped to develop affecting economic stability and growth.  Rather than rectifying the faults, Zanu intensified her attacks on political opposition and accused every wrong as caused from the west who collaborated with opposition political parties. The country went from a bread basket of Africa to a departmental unit of Chinese supermarket, Zimbabwe has failed and is failing to perform any better in every aspect of operations as a government.

In contrast to other relatively progressive African leaders, unlike the late Tanzanian President Dr. Julius Nyerere who, at independence resorted to work on people’s minds in order for them to understand and accept change, Zimbabwe Zanu leadership took it for granted that transition would happen because Zimbabweans were literary educated. Perhaps Mr. Mugabe and his cohorts were, as they still are now, not aware of the hurdles they have gone through and are facing in building Zimbabwe Nation. President Nyerere guided Tanzanians to work towards being a united people with one language thereby building a stable Tanzania that she is even today. Obviously the work of President Nyerere shows that he loved people.  He, for example stayed with and slept with villagers during his first year of mobilizing the nation towards understanding fundamentals of change in Tanzania. He walked with people, worked with them on simple projects like building simple bridges using stones and logs without necessarily using cement or still reinforcement. People understood his way of thinking as he also confirmed understanding of their needs. He did something for Tanzania no one had ever done.

Can anyone compare Mr. Mugabe to Mwalimu  Nyerere or even Kaunda in terms of human rights maintenance records?  Instead of teaching people united goals, many dictators in Africa have capitalized on where people come from by diving them with a view to preserve their positions. One is appointed, for example, to be a certain position to meet specifics on the dictator’s ambitions to be safe and preserved. There is nothing like one is appointed to fill a role per structure and budget requirements that are not national but self-preservation based at best. This frustrated the intelligent and ambitious intellectuals who could not get the opportunity to serve their countries because the president did not deem it appropriate for them to serve under his government.  Many Africans left the continent from lack of politician’s foresight and professionalism. Hiring of citizens has continued to deteriorate and not done on merit. Candidates are presidential preferred by their loyalty to a ruling political party. In Zimbabwe civil servants are political card holders so are the soldiers, police and high ranking intelligent officers.

The failure to belong to a ruling political party and/or having relationships with those in opposition political parties has created another dilemma in African politics and governance, namely, the absence of an agreed protocol on how to deal with Political Opposition. Formed in May 1963, the then Organization of African Unity (OAU) graduating to African Union (AU) in the 2000s has, other than dealing with decolonization, and then economic aspects of the nations, attended to the subject on politics of opposition with neither consensus nor political good will. This has left the matter, like that on human rights which until after 2000s begun receiving a cursory attention, a grey area at continent level. Political Opposition is left as an internal affairs issue dealt with internally on a country to country.

Africa, in my opinion, failed to address basic matters on the political processes of governance. She would neither condemn herself for dealing ruthlessly with political opposition contributing to high numbers of refugees from the continent, nor regard it as in violation of people’s constitutional rights to associate and belong. Africa has remained silent on some issues betraying her being political dishonesty. She employed quiet diplomacy which failed it was left as an administrative issue that was dealt with in bureaucracy. People who work at AU do so at the leisure of their governments, so AU civil servants would not dare object on their leaders’ directives. For this reason Zimbabwe has confidently flouted certain protocols of the SADCC and on AU and got away with it. Similarly it has killed initiatives of political opposition. As a principle of democracy only the west has stood for plain leveled political ground for all parties. This has had strong and threatening attacks from Africa as being colonial even though the action is disadvantaging ordinary Africans who want to get along with their lives which are facing increasing poverty.

It is ironic that Mr. Mugabe, supposedly now educated and experienced to appreciate the differences in merits and demerits of favours when appointing public officers, has failed to exercise justice in appointment of public officers. Given that he has had thirty-four years of administering the Public office, he still is the worst culprit in tribal hiring and rewarding people on regional and tribal basis as an open and naked way corrupt leaders can use without challenge either from courts or the legislature. Take a survey at judges and see the political party they actually support in day to day life. Unfortunately, due to corruption, the more a leader stays in power the more inclined to stay with those who have shared in the spoils and will support him/her for it. This, obviously, is done at the expense of under developing the separation of power institutions practice and concept, and in particular the judiciary and legislature. Zimbabwe can make a case study of none contested breaches of the constitution by the executive on dealing with judges and the legislators. Incidentally, dealing with human mind is the most elusive and difficult task because even the incumbents know how to play low profile while they enjoy privileges accruing from corruption practices.

I will take two illustrations of a compelling nature involving the highest office in the land and a lower but equally powerful position in government. The current permanent secretary to the ministry of information (2014 January) and also press secretary to the president, regularly featuring in the newspaper media by the name, Nathaniel Manheru appears extremely efficient. Yet he failed to make any changes in the radio (ZBC) then but appears so enthusiastic and looks radical yet could not spot or identify the radio problems and its operation at below budget.  His public pronouncements are just show.

Everybody knows that ZBC is a mouthpiece of Zanu and that no one will touch it irrespective of its management faults. Another living example of Zanu failure to be an accountable government due to corruption. Mr. Mugabe, as if conscious of constitutional obligations, has retired three army Generals, two Police chiefs, one air marshal commander and appointed undeserving officers to high ranking office as incentive for their loyalty to him. The aim is to keep ZANU in control of the military and maintain loyalty to CHIMURENGA-Liberation Struggle and to Robert Mugabe as a person, and not to the nation or its constitution. Suddenly Mugabe is equivalent to the nation and bigger than the constitution. The newly born babies, it follows from this warped logic, are not regarded as people (citizens) who could be saluted were these men to live beyond 100 years in service. The men in uniform who cry foul on not saluting any none liberation struggle service person, are so short sighted presenting a questions on their value to the struggle; and further, whether their presence in the armed struggle was not an act of accident. This is just another illustration of perceptions so damaging and divisive that need urgent changing to meet true sacrifice as a price paid for Zimbabwe without discrimination, Zimbabweans need to show more clarity and maturity in thinking beyond polluted and strictly partisan narrow perceptions which run down the base for national focus on national interest by all. Then a question need be raised: What is it that shall unify us as Zimbabweans?

National Interest is not yet fully endorsed at leadership level apart from lip servicing or is it understood by common people as guided more from the supreme law of the land, the constitution. The Zanu propaganda machinery, ZBC radio Station, uses state money to sings songs on Mugabe and never take time to teach people on the importance of the constitution beyond who Mugabe is. The misconception, misunderstanding and ignorance that leads to disregarding the role of a constitution begins with Mr. Robert Mugabe himself and the rest are just following suite to seek and justify the favour they have received from Mr. Mugabe by being appointed to high office when they do not deserve.

Rarely do people in politics or civil service in Africa resign from government saying they oppose the president or because the way he has done certain issues is ultra-virus to the constitution. Fear to lose a job or life is primary than the choices to criticize or not to criticize the government of the day and/or its incumbents, such as, in particular, the Presidency. It somehow explains the complexities, for example, in the MDC appointed Ambassadors through the GNU agreement of 2008. It makes it more complex when government appointees on missions abroad refuse to return home for fear of vengeful retribution by a government.  The case of Jacqueline Zwambila Court Case in Australia (2011-13) can easily demonstrate how elusive it is to determine reasonableness of fear before one goes back in the hands of people who make decision based on selfish benefits without any reference to how community as a whole relate to the unfair practices prevailing in the country.

Historically Zanu has failed to explain legal issues satisfactorily except hind behind their laws without justification. Who would have dare to think that after the constitutional referendum of 2013, Robert Mugabe would seek changing the constitution so he can do what he used to do before and take back the country into bankruptcy? Zanu does not believe in people’s voice, needs or vote. Zanu belief and faith is, by fear and force, in Mugabe.  As put unequivocally put then in the 1980s by Margaret Dongo, then a Member of Parliament (MP) and former freedom fighter, that parliamentarians were like women to Robert Mugabe. The Zimbabwe political Cinderella sequels show moments of earnest thrust to reason out Mugabe, while Mugabe and cohorts come up with irresistible offers of corruption that makes people docile to play a blind eye to serious issues on long term solutions to the country’s development towards a democracy. The irrational approach to our struggle for freedom in Zimbabwe has consolidated Zanu chaotic approach into power. Our lack of deeper perception to consider corruption temporary, and sometimes play smart by joining it, has cost us both in terms of losing opportunity to strike strong compromise and failing to present our case coherently to the world without flip-flopping.  Africa has been an accomplice to divisions by purposely supporting openly one side at the expense of the other. Also as people we have not taken each other seriously and pulled resources against oppression so clearly identified. We have to fight for change within our own selves to perceive our problem differently with a different approach to keep the ordinary person faithful who decides the fate of the country by being political apathetic.

Immediately after independence Mr. .Mugabe worked on reducing political opponent contenders to the school boy level so he would remain the Cock (Jongwe) of the country as the symbol of Zanu party clearly represent. Those who know about cocks would testify that they never tolerate another cock in the same fowl run. When Zanu chose the image of a cock it was prophetically couched towards a one party state condition. Consider the vilification those who stood in bad stead with Mugabe had to go through. By mere intuition for wrong political survival motives we have the first Black Mayor Tony Gara (1985-6) calling Mugabe another son of God. Webster Shamu bought his way into political permanence by launching the 21 February Zanu Youth Movement. 21 February is when Mugabe is said to have been born.  With no military training, but so laud on the liberation struggle, Mr Mugabe is now viewed as the supreme leader of Zanu liberation struggle. Opinions on this are divided both from within and without Zanu party despite the disquiet on the subject. Opinion on the popularity of Mr. Mugabe, as with many other similar subjects in Zanu on Mugabe, have gone silent when so-called congresses are called.

Zanu is neither a system nor properly functional organization. It survives from fear among its hierarchy to common membership  The danger is no one asks questions on Mugabe openly and fear can lead to spreading of none authenticated matters compounding fear fears killing an idea. It only takes one Central Intelligent Officer (CIO) operator to threaten assignment from highest office in the land to investigate those of dubious character and do not support the president, and that story dies as gossip. If these concerns happen to be on the name of the president then the party enters into silence and it takes any stupid fellow to stand up, sing one praise song on Mugabe and suggest he leads the party again, and it is passed without opposition. A lot of disquiet is expressed but never voiced openly. One often hears most of Zanu top notch guys saying who dares to challenge Mugabe and risk being dropped from cabinet this time?

The freedom to speak is a leverage people need to claim in order for democracy to work relatively safe secured by popular people vote and not by disquiet and fear. The media which is enemy number one in African politics is a prerequisite that has to succeed if we have to uncover surrogates who work to undermine democracy by clandestinely strengthening corrupt practices. If people cannot criticize Mugabe or his lieutenant, there is a paralysis on political development because no exchange of information can be done to further the knowledge on alternatives. Enos Nkala (founder member of Zanu and former finance minister) in anger threatens that he will write a book which will be published only when he is dead. The struggle in the mind of many Zimbabweans is that you cannot demystify Mugabe eminence in Zimbabwe liberation.

I am saying it has nothing to do with Mugabe but with the collective will of Zimbabweans who subscribed and are subscribing to a NATIONAL THEME of restorative justice and restoration of freedom values adulterated and polluted under the disguised notion of liberation struggle.   It is not a case of whether you were a founding member, but of whether you hold to the values that identify with the struggle. Leadership must be consistent in thought, philosophy and practice as well as mature to take advice. People who lead ought to have record of understanding of basic human rights concerns as well as the tenets of rule of law. Zanu has given much eminence to a person and created a system of corruption values. The struggle aimed at the removal of poverty, creating jobs, developing industry and commerce, housing, roads and infrastructure etc., Zanu has focused on promoting an individual, a name, and a personality cult even when his record is showing failure. Zanu has built a future based on a Cinderella Story that in reality offers fiction and a paradise not found and possibly never to be found. From abstract terms such as leadership code, Gukurahundi struggle and numerous thoughtless fiction which lost value. The strength of Zanu is when it’s plan on methods that further divide than unify people. That a leader cannot be contested is not a twentieth century language and cannot induce incentive for good politics. It is insulting of people integrity and the spirit of change through election than barrel of force of the gun.

The barrel force of the gun was only a last resort that was aimed at cleansing the participants into appreciating one another to strengthen survival based on love and then hate, on order than disorder, on discipline than indiscipline and hard work and integrity than on laziness and corruption. The struggle was aimed at liberating people from antagonism based on classes, races, tribes, religions by exercising the pillars of all men were created equal. If the struggle has been misrepresented, distorted and given discord tune, who will correct the tune and by what authority? People have not asked that question. May be to be fair is that people have been killed and died post-independence seeking for clarity and it is getting deem and darker while the same people pride in sustaining liberation values.

Where do we go from here? The Zimbabwe economy, its international relations and the people inside the country are already suffering again similar to the 2008 state conditions that led to a GPA.  The government obviously will not abandon their blame, blame politics irrespective of its failure record. The international community is taking a wait-and-see attitude even though they want to help from a human right angel. There is need for moral courage from many Zimbabweans particularly the in-between man to stand up and be counted in shading answers for a united solution embracing all people irrespective of their station in life.

The in between man is one who thinks he is a business person when he has nothing to offer to create jobs or build infrastructure except that he is in between flying capital that is stolen from treasury of a corrupt government. He has no capital, nor authority to invest except making deals on misappropriated funds to make a living. He does not pay tax, and if he does he does make a full declaration, therefore he is a parasite and dangerous to any country’s economy. Because they have a gangster’s mentality, they create a sense of false economy. The government’s corruptness makes the in between man a rich parasite and cannot economically skip him without chocking themselves. The in-between man is an extension of ministers, presidents and the international bourgeoisie who is responsible for paying for economic deficiency of a government budget and commands the government. The in-between man kills any spirit of a revolution, he is audibly laud and carries all the dirty work of the government. Sometimes these people hail from among the ranks of government military, intelligence and police. That is why it becomes difficult to succeed against governments in Africa because the in-between man lives and plays with the common man giving an impression the government provides sustenance for all.

In Zimbabwe the in between man are the police officers, military high ranking and those they give power to carry corrupt activities without questioning, and the intelligence class. The 1980 brief case business person now exhibiting himself in the name of indigenization group, is a favoured boys of Zanu who have no understanding of financial engineering except to siphon government coffers with the help of Zanu, but never pay tax. They have survived from being used by government to take over farms, businesses and houses of other people through fraud and threats. The need to study and understand and work who these men and women are who secretly collude with Zanu government and are used to access and bank diamond funds abroad, is more urgent now than any time.  Zimbabweans have to get to that stage when they should identify leadership from people with visible and traceable clean record of service. Political aspirant or having championed a cause has not proven enough evidence for basing selection of leadership of integrity in the last thirty-five years of independence.

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