15 May 2017
HARARE – As the 2018 watershed elections loom in the country, public
broadcaster Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC) which enjoys a
monopoly on the local airwaves has come under the spotlight as opposition
political parties fight for the space currently dominated by the ruling
Media practitioners, election and political observers interviewed by the
Daily News are adamant that the ZBC’s television and radio stations – like
they did in previous elections – will not cover opposition political
parties’ campaign activities.
They don’t foresee ZBC changing its biased editorial stance in support of
the Zanu PF government.
But could it be possible that ZBC might reform ahead of the 2018
Misa-Zimbabwe national director Nhlanhla Ngwenya said his answer is that
it can only be possible if Zimbabweans take ownership of the broadcaster
by demanding its freedom from Zanu PF.
“But there seems to be fatigue if not acceptance of the abnormal as
normal, just like Zimbabweans do as a copying mechanism.
“Demands for the broadcaster to be independent from the political clutches
are in line with the country’s Constitution and regional protocols on
freedom of expression. Even the Sadc guidelines on elections place
obligations on the public media to act as such.
“In short, I am saying there is enough legislative backup for Zimbabweans
to reclaim ZBC and make it a true public broadcaster.”
Ngwenya said Zimbabweans needed to attach a cost to ZBC’s continued
violation of its public service mandate and break the culture of impunity
where public institutions completely disregard their public service
mandate knowing fully well their actions will not attract any
“This therefore means Zimbabweans should ensure relevant oversight bodies
and authorities such as human rights, and elections commissions act on ZBC
and its handlers’ abdication of duty.
“Sadly, the opposition that tends to mourn their exclusion during
elections has not and is not doing enough to ensure the situation is
addressed. Their lackadaisical approach on this matter reflects their
insipid media policy agenda.”
Voluntary Media council of Zimbabwe director Loughty Dube said: “The
framework to reform ZBC lies with the broad framework to transform all
media, the first start will be for reforms to start at re-constituting the
Zimbabwe Mass Media Trust (ZMMT) and allow the trust to appoint ZBC boards
so that they are not directly under a minister who is a political party
“ZMMT as representing the public should be accountable to Parliament and
not an individual politician. Continued political interference with the
editorial independence of the State-controlled ZBC, is largely due to the
influence of the minister.
“The next process will be to totally transform ZBC from being a State
broadcaster into a truly public broadcaster,” said Dube.
Election Resource Centre director Tawanda Chimhini said the Zimbabwe
Electoral Commission (Zec) has a role to play in ensuring that the
state/public media provides balanced reporting of all contesting political
parties simply on the basis of the Constitution which says Zec must
conduct free and fair elections.
“In fulfilment of this constitutional obligation, Zec must take all
necessary measures to ensure fairness, including compelling the public
media to operate professionally.
“Not doing so and proceeding with an election where the public broadcaster
conducts itself in a clearly biased and partisan manner would be
facilitating a potentially unconstitutional election.”
Chimhini said regulatory measures can be used compel the media to report
in a balanced, ethical manner and it is within Zec’s mandate to draft such
regulations and include penalties in the event of non-compliance.
“All media, public and private, must never operate beyond the limitations
of ethics and principles. As such, Zimbabwe is now in the pre-election
phase of the electoral cycle.
“The conduct of the media must already be under scrutiny by the election
management body. Waiting to conduct such scrutiny and to regulate the
media when an election date has been announced falls short of what is
expected to influence a credible electoral process. Emphasis to regulate
the media in elections must include balance, editorial independence,
provision of information and accuracy,” said Chimhini.
Media practitioner Koliwe Nyoni said demanding reforms at ZBC means a
number of things.
“Firstly, we need to secure the editorial independence of the public
broadcaster. This is not easily achievable given that the current
government seems to have a `grip’ on State media and this is even more
visible now with the infighting within the ruling party.
“It is not a secret that there is political interference that has in the
past seen the public broadcaster blacking out on critical coverage such as
that of opposition parties during elections. In July, ZBC blacked out on
the nationwide stay away and it emerged that the Broadcasting Authority of
Zimbabwe had allegedly issued a warning to all broadcasters on its
Nyoni said there is need for the law to define the editorial independence
of ZBC which is guaranteed in terms of Section 61 of the Constitution.
“Secondly, and very critical at this moment, is that following the 2015
KPMG audit report we have not seen much movement on the recommendations on
corporate, functional and operational levels at the public broadcaster.
“The audit was clear that restructuring was necessary in view of the
migration from analogue to digital television broadcasting in the country.
Despite the fact that there has been near silence on recommendations and
little improvement on the quality of productions, government wants to
award the broadcaster five more television channels.
“Reforming within this context involves increasing the capacity of ZBC by
dealing with accountability by an independent board with a public
interest, avoiding reporting and programming in regard to religion,
political belief, culture and race.”
Veteran broadcaster John Masuku said: “Chances of the ZBC radio and
television giving more positive coverage to opposition parties are very
slim. Nothing indicates that such will happen.
“Political parties should fully utilise alternative platforms like
ChannelZim which carry programmes from VOA Studio 7, Radio VOP, Radio
Dialogue and CORAH among others.
“They should also continue to demand to be heard on public radio and cite
relevant broadcast legislation regarding why ZBC should not be a State
controlled broadcaster but a public entity that benefits all tax payers.”
Masuku added that the media should also expose private stations that are
not impartial as well. “Media advocacy groups like Misa and VMCZ should
issue widely circulated alerts about any flouting of best broadcasting
Southern Africa director at Human Rights Watch Dewa Mavhinga said: “There
are very slim chances for ZBC to reform ahead of 2018 elections because
they follow directives from an extremely partisan Zanu PF government that
actively promotes biased coverage which favours them. Reform is likely
under a new administration.”
Media practitioner Rashweat Mukundu said: “I don’t foresee ZBC changing
its biased editorial stance in support of the Zanu PF government. If
anything at all we will see a continuation of the denigration, hate
messaging of opposition parties reminiscence of the past.
“Zec could work with media to develop a code of conduct that enhances
professionalism in coverage of elections and that media should adhere to.
Otherwise outside this there is no way that ZBC can be forced to be
Mukundu said past court challenges on ZBC bias have failed, and this calls
for a review of laws governing the ZBC to make it a public broadcaster.
“The editorial policies are not the making of staff at ZBC but political
directives from Munhumutapa building and the staff either has to comply or
be fired. It is the political interference that needs redress.”
Media practitioner Faith Ndlovu said elections are the centrepiece of
democracy and political party campaign coverage is crucial because of its
power to empower the electorate.
“The media therefore, particularly the public media, indeed have a duty to
report on elections and contesting parties in a fair, balanced, accurate,
transparent and equitable manner as reflected in the media code of conduct
and guidelines such as the Sadc Guidelines Principles and Guidelines
Governing Democratic Elections.
“While past performance by the ZBC in covering previous elections has been
a cause for concern, I hope that the relevant authorities recognise and
respect local and regional instruments that Zimbabwe is signatory to on
credible and professional media election coverage.”
Ndlovu added that it is therefore imperative for political parties
alongside relevant media professional bodies and even regional bodies to
continue calling for, and putting pressure on the relevant authorities for
the non-partisan coverage of electoral processes.
Information for Development Trust national cordinator Tawanda Majoni said
there is no chance that ZBC will shift away from its traditional pro-Zanu
PF, anti-opposition stance without being forced.
“As part of the official media, it will always structure its content and
approaches to favour the sitting government. That has always been the
case, even prior to independence. Attempts have been made by the political
opposition and civil society since 2000 to compel the broadcaster to be
non-partisan, balanced and objective, but that has been falling flat.
Majoni said the Sadc guidelines on elections prohibit partisanship, and so
do global best practices on elections. “Strong advocacy must be built
around this and a non-partisan ZBC must be among the key demands for free
and fair elections, outside which the opposition must just boycott the