The ZIMBABWE Situation Our thoughts and prayers are with Zimbabwe
- may peace, truth and justice prevail.

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From: "Trudy Stevenson"
Sent: Friday, January 14, 2005 10:55 PM

Inspection of the Voters Roll for the Parliamentary Election is announced in
today's Herald.  This is very short notice  - as usual!  The RG's Office
should be advertising this widely and putting posters at every polling
station - if you do not see these posters etc, please let me know - or any
other problem.

We encourage all who are eligible to vote to check their names on the roll,
or to register or change their details (new address, change of name, etc) if

You are required to produce your ID and proof of residence to
register/change details.
Registration centres will be open from 7am - 6pm in urban areas and 5pm in
rural constituencies.  Generally they are located at the usual polling
stations.  In Harare North these are:

Alfred Beit Primary
Avonlea Primary
Ellis Robins High
Emerald Hill School for the Deaf
Groombridge Primary
Hallingbury Primary
Hatcliffe Extension Clinic
Hatcliffe 1 Primary
Hatcliffe 2 Primary
Marlborough District Office
Marlborough High School
Mt Pleasant District Office
North Park Primary
Vainona Primary

Please contact your MP for other constituencies.
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Daily News online edition

      Traditional leaders resist Zanu PF quota system

      Date: 14-Jan, 2005

      THE newly introduced Zanu PF 30 percent quota system aimed at
increasing the number of female legislators is being resisted by traditional
leaders in Mutare South constituency who argue that it violates their
traditional beliefs.

      The constituency, together with Mutare North, Mutasa South and Makoni
East were reserved for Zanu PF female candidates. But all is not well
particularily in Mutare South where Ellen Gwaradzimba, the Zanu PF
provincial women's league boss, had set her sight on.

      But traditional leaders in the constituency have made clear their
intolerance towards a female candidate forcing Gwaradzimba to abandon Mutare
South opting for Mutare North.

      "Mutare South has proved difficult because traditional leaders have
refused to support the idea of a female candidate in their constituency,"
said a senior member of the Zanu PF women's league in the province.

      "So as we speak, Gwaradzimba has left that constituency and is now
campaigning in Mutare North."

      Gwaradzimba lost the mayoral election to Misheck Kagurabadza of the
opposition MDC in 2003.

      Sources yesterday said the traditional leaders summoned Gwaradzimba
and told her outright that they would not support a woman candidate in the
constituency, curently held by Sydney Mukwecheni of the MDC.

      "They did not mince their words," said another Zanu PF district
official in Zimunya. "They told her not to waste her time campaigning."

      Gwaradzimba's departure from Mutare South effectively wrecked the
ruling party's decision to parcel the constituency to a female candidate.

      This leaves Zanu PF youth activist Fred Kanzama, top war veteran Levy
Gwarada and another war veteran, whose name was not immediately known, to
slug it out in the weekend primaries.

      "Gwaradzimba did not want to take chances so she felt Mutare North was
safer," said one Zanu PF source.

      Gwaradzimba was not immediately available for comment as she was said
to be busy campaigning in Mutare North. Mutare South is a rural constituency
where villagers do not allow women to occupy leadership positions ahead of

      The constituency comprises Zimunya Township, Dora, Chitakatira,
Chigodora, Mabwere and Mupudzi.

      Meanwhile, as Zanu PF parliamentary hopefuls brace for the weekend
primaries, attention has been focused on Mutare Central where top tobacco
farmer Charles Pemhenayi faces businessman Shadreck Beta. The seat is
currently held by Innocent Gonese, the MDC chief whip.

      Both Pemhenayi, a Zanu PF central committee member and Beta, a former
ruling party provincial chairman, were yesterday making last minute
manoeuvres to sway voters to their respective sides.

      Attention has also been focused on Mutasa South where Oppah
Muchinguri, the Zanu PF women's league boss is being challenged by former MP
Irene Zindi. Zindi, a tough-talking politician, has reportedly refused to
step aside to give Muchinguri a free passage.

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Zim Online

Sat 15 January 2005
  HARARE - ZANU PF party chairman John Nkomo said the party will take
disciplinary measures against out of favour Information Minister Jonathan
Moyo, who increasingly looks on his way out of both the party and

      Nkomo who chairs ZANU PF's disciplinary committee, said the party was
going to act against Moyo for attacking and ridiculing Nkomo himself and
another senior party member, Dumiso Dabengwa in an article published by the
state-run Herald newspaper yesterday.

      "We are not going to tolerate indiscipline to tear the party apart,"
Nkomo said. "We will put the matter into perspective and help the public out
of the agony of having to think out answers prompted by what they read (in
the Herald)," added the ZANU PF chairman who was accused by Moyo of being a
dictator and a liar.

      Moyo, an arch-critic of the government before changing sides to become
its most zealous defender, appears already on his way out of the government
after ZANU PF yesterday banned him from contesting March's general election.

      He was in the government after President Robert Mugabe appointed him a
non-constituency Member of Parliament under a constitutional clause allowing
him to appoint 30 members to the House. But Mugabe has this time round
promised not to appoint anyone to his Cabinet who is not elected in the
March poll.

      Apparently frustrated at being banned from the general election and
his dismissal earlier on by Mugabe from ZANU PF's key central and politburo
committees, Moyo lashed out at Nkomo and Dabengwa who he accused of telling
"primitive lies" about him to Mugabe.

      Moyo was fired from the party committees after he secretly attempted
to block the appointment of Joyce Mujuru as ZANU PF's and Zimbabwe's second

      Insiders said Mugabe was likely to view Moyo's outburst against Nkomo
and Dabengwa as an attack on his authority, a development they said could
see the former university political science teacher jettisoned from ZANU
PF. - ZimOnline
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Zim Online

African Commission to hear Zimbabwean lawyer's torture case
Sat 15 January 2005
  PRETORIA - The African Commission for Human and People's Rights (ACHPR)
will in April or early May this year hear a case in which a human rights
lawyer is suing the Zimbabwe government for torture and other human rights

      Zimbabwean lawyer Gabriel Shumba appealed to the continental human
rights watchdog after being severely tortured by state security agents in
violation of the African charter on human and people's rights to which
Harare is a signatory.

      In a letter to Shumba, who now lives in South Africa after fleeing
Zimbabwe, the commission said it has sat down the lawyer's appeal for
hearing between April 27 and 11 May.

      Shumba said he hoped the case will help draw attention to human rights
violations in Zimbabwe and lead African and other international leaders to
condemn the use of torture in the country.

      The lawyer, who was subjected to electric shocks and was urinated upon
by state agents, said he was also hoping the commission would ask Harare to
compensate victims of torture and to punish those guilty of human rights

      Zimbabwe Justice Minister Patrick Chinamasa could not be reached for
comment on the matter. Harare has in the past denied its security agents
torture human rights activists and government opponents.

      Political violence and human rights abuse have become routine in
Zimbabwe since the emergence of the opposition Movement for Democratic
Change party five years ago as a threat to President Robert Mugabe and his
ZANU PF party's hold on power. - ZimOnline
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Zim Online
ZANU PF spy suspects remanded in custody
Sat 15 January 2005
  HARARE - ZANU PF chairman for Mashonaland West province Philip Chiyangwa
and party deputy security officer Kenny Karidza were yesterday remanded to
24 and 28 January respectively.

      The two are part of a group of five men accused of selling state
economic and political intelligence information to foreign agents.
      Karidza, ZANU PF external affairs director Itai Marchi, Zimbabwe's
ambassador-designate to Mozambique Godfrey Dzvairo and banking executive
Tendai Matambanadzo have pleaded guilty to the charges.

      Chiyangwa, who the state says was paid up to US$10 000 per month for
his services is pleading not guilty and has a pending application at the
High Court seeking the court to remove him form remand to relax his bail

      The five men, who are being charged under the Official Secrets Act,
can face up to 20 years in jail if found guilty of selling state secrets to
foreign spies. - ZimOnline

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Zim Online

FEATURE: Villagers warn of 'Ides of March' over Mugabe's chasing away of
food donors
Sat 15 January 2005
  MANICALAND PROVINCE - Each morning Daniel Munzara, here at Tsuwa village
in Manicaland province wakes up to gaze at the sky. It is a gesture he
repeats at intervals throughout the day hoping for a sign that never comes -
a sign of the rain-bearing-cloud.

      "Denga raramba (the heavens will not give the rains)," he says, his
eyes still fixed on the cloudless sky. "This year we will surely starve to
death," he murmurs, so quietly as if to himself than to our news crew.

      Like his fellow villagers, Munzara is worried that if a dry spell
gripping Zimbabwe persists for a few more weeks, his wilting maize crop, the
staple food here, will be completely destroyed.

      And to add to the villagers' fears, the Department of Meteorology this
week warned that the dry spell could be a signal of yet another drought year
for Zimbabwe.

      In some parts of the country's more drought-prone provinces of
Matabeleland and Masvingo, villagers have already given up hope of saving
their wilting crops or planting a new crop.

      "This is a double tragedy for us. There is no sign of rain coming nor
is there a sign of the non-governmental organisations (NGOS) that fed us in
previous drought years," Munzara said, picking up on a recurrent theme with
every villager here - that is,
      President Robert Mugabe's decision last year to turn away
international food agencies.

      Mugabe told food agencies to take their help elsewhere because
Zimbabwe had harvested enough to feed itself, a claim later proved by
Parliament to have been false.

      The cash-strapped government started importing maize late last year
after realising belatedly that there was no enough maize to feed the people.
But the stocks it has so far brought into the country are way below
quantities required to feed the more than three million Zimbabweans food
relief experts estimate are in need of food assistance.

      The state also reversed a ban on food agencies from distributing food
to hungry Zimbabweans but the NGOs, most of who had downsized staff after
the government had said it did not need their help, either do not readily
have enough food in stock or are still to reach all areas such as here at
Tsuwa village.

      "Plan International (an NGO) is no longer giving us any food because
we hear it was told to stop by the government," said Munzara's neighbour,
Sam Mukoyi.

      He continued: "We are starving and we face a drought. The government
has done nothing except to chase away those who could help. But we will have
our turn in March."

      Zimbabwe holds a key general election in March. And it remains to be
seen whether swelling anger among the ruling ZANU PF party's mostly rural
supporters, who blame the government for "chasing away" food donors will
translate into a protest vote against the government. - ZimOnline

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Zimbabwe's Jonathan Moyo hits out at Zanu(PF) leaders

January 14, 2005, 13:00

Jonathan Moyo, the Zimbabwean information minister, has rebuked his own
party, calling its chairman a liar after being barred from contesting
primary elections due this weekend. Moyo, who has fallen from favour after
allegedly organising a meeting, dubbed the "Tsholotsho Declaration", to back
a counter-candidate to president Robert Mugabe's choice of vice-president,
issued his statement yesterday.

Criticising Nkomo for stating at a public meeting that he could not contest
primaries in his home district of Tsholotsho, Moyo said the decision was
"spiteful and vengeful". "This smacks of an abuse of office," said Moyo in a

"Comrade Nkomo's mission will add more unhappy speculation that he is doing
everything to weaken Zanu(PF) by ensuring that it fields a weak candidate so
as to pave the way for his (opposition) Movement for Democratic Change (MDC)
relative Sipepa Nkomo", said Moyo's statement.

Tsholotsho Declaration
Moyo also threatened legal action, saying: "The blatant and defamatory
political lies about the so-called Tsholotsho Declaration have been taken
too far by Nkomo and in the interest of justice, fairness and the rule of
law, he must now be held legally accountable in the courts". Moyo said Nkomo
and Dumiso Dabengwa, the former home affairs minister, had told "a primitive
lie" and a "spectacular false claim" to defame him.

He criticised Nkomo for being "so afraid or accommodating of the MDC" that
he would not stand against the opposition in polls set for March this year.
The bitter spat, brewing since November, has seen the ruling Zanu(PF) party
split in its worst ever divide since before the country gained independence
in 1980. - Sapa
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What Hopes for Blair's Africa Plan?

Mmegi/The Reporter (Gaborone)

January 14, 2005
Posted to the web January 14, 2005


Britain takes the Chair of the world's G8 leading industrialised nations
this year, and will also take the Chair of the European Union for six months
starting in July. Prime Minister Tony Blair aims to use the opportunity to
launch an Africa development plan based on debt relief, more generous aid
and better trade access.

For the purpose, he has appointed a 17-member Commission for Africa
comprising mainly Western and African politicians, but that will also
include rock singer Bob Geldof, famous for his Live Aid concerts to raise
money to relieve famine in Ethiopia.

Last week, British Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, launched the
Plan for Africa. In doing so, he made reference to the massive international
response, in terms of financial and technical assistance to the tsunami
disaster of Boxing Day. He called the world's response a "passion of
compassion" which he hoped would be harnessed against poverty and hunger in

At his own press conference, Blair referred to African poverty as
"equivalent to a man-made preventable tsunami every week". In doing so, he
reportedly distinguished between the earthquake-induced waves of the north
Indian Ocean, as a "force of nature", and the underdevelopment of Africa as
the "failure of man".

Press reports quote Blair as saying "thousands of children die needlessly
every day. That is why it is important to take some of this extraordinary
spirit people have shown over the past two weeks and say 'how do we use that
to awaken people's feelings in respect to what can be prevented in terms of
tragedy and catastrophe in the world".

Bob Geldoff's involvement is clearly a response to a speech he reportedly
made in London early last year, addressed to Tony Blair, in which he called
for "a 21st Century Marshall Plan to save Africa". In his speech, he said
"Summon the thinkers and writers and culture geeks, philosophy monks,
development freaks, economists and anthropologists and report back, not only
to the seven richest nations in the world, but also to the generation that
20 years ago took Africa and the world's poor from nowhere on the political
agenda and placed it right at the top...".

Three Commonwealth Finance Ministers, Gordon Brown, Trevor Manuel of South
Africa, and Canada's Ralph Goodale are preparing the economic chapter of the
Commission's Report, and will meet in South Africa this month to work
jointly on their chapter.

While we should all see the appointment of the Commission as worthwhile, no
one should doubt that Africa itself has to make what comes out of the
Commission work. The question is: Can it?

The Chairman of the African Union is likely to be the President of Sudan, el
Bashir who has yet to stop killing in Darfur. The AU has not yet committed
peace keepers to the Sudan. The Sudanese Government has recently signed an
Agreement with John Garang's Southerners, but this will be the second time,
because an earlier Agreement failed, resulting in continuation of civil war

The Ivory Coast, which had earlier been seen as a model of socio-economic
development in Africa, was plagued by civil war. South Africa's Thabo Mbeki
arranged a cease-fire, but we have yet to see if the root causes, among
which ethnic rivalry plays a part, have been satisfactorily resolved for the
long term.

In Zimbabwe, President Robert Mugabe, who started off so well in Zimbabwe in
1980, seems to have unleashed economic disaster.

When one looks around Africa today, one asks oneself whether what Frantz
Fanon wrote many years ago is still valid. "The national bourgeoisie of
underdeveloped countries is not engaged in production, nor in invention, nor
in labour; it is completely canalised into activities of the intermediate

When I asked an older woman why she had not voted at the last general
election, her view was that the BDP only enriched the rich. "And the
Opposition?" I asked. "They are really hungry", she replied.

For me, the nature of the education system is at the heart of
under-development. I quote from Summary Conclusions of a Seminar in 1974, on
Education and Training and Alternatives in Education in African Countries,
in Dar es Salaam, organised by the Swedish Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, and
which I helped direct:

"The formal system of education, to which the hopes of so many have been
pinned, has failed the great majority of people. At each stage, fewer pupils
are retained, with a minority completing primary school, and a very small
minority only at secondary level in most African countries.

"The content of education is such that it does not prepare people to
participate in economic life. It does not give them any understanding of
their societies. It does not show them the need for and possibilities of
transformation of the physical and social environment. Work and skills are
required. But the children have acquired a distaste for manual work and
skills - especially manual work. The methods of education have encouraged
passivity and dependence, and discouraged creative thinking and initiative.

"The early school leavers who are left jobless will constitute an unbearable
burden and a source of social turmoil".

Things may have improved here, but what about most of Africa?

President Mbeki had a good relationship with Mr Blair when he became South
Africa's President. He seems now to have a chip on his shoulder. His
committed leadership to the Blair initiative and Africa's full participation
in making it work, are vital to its success.
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Speed Up Tourism Master Plan, Industry Urges Government

The Herald (Harare)

January 14, 2005
Posted to the web January 14, 2005


PLAYERS in the tourism sector have urged the Government to speed up the
implementation of the proposed Tourism Master Plan, as it would help revive
the industry.

The plan is expected to be presented before the Cabinet soon following the
conclusion of the consultative process, in which stakeholders in the sector
were given an opportunity to study the contents and come up with their own

The Master Plan would be implemented against the background of continued
resurgence in the sector.

Chief executive officer of the Zimbabwe Council Tourism (ZCT) Mr Paul
Matamisa said the timeous implementation of the plan would enhance the
operations of the sector.

"This year should be the year of establishing new markets as well as to
consolidate existing ones.

"With the policy being put in place, it will be a major boost to the sector
as various constraints which had been besetting tourism would be addressed,"
said Mr Matamisa.

He added that ZCT was focusing on strategies to attract visitors from
traditional markets such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Canada and

An official with the country's tourism marketing board - Zimbabwe Tourism
Authority (ZTA) - said the plan was long overdue and the authorities should
speed up the process.

"We feel the plan is long overdue and there is urgent need for responsible
authorities to hasten its impleme- ntation.

"This will be a major development to the industry which is already on the
recovery path," said the official.

Implementation of the plan would complement the already existing Approved
Destination Status (ADS) granted to the country by China in boosting the
operations of the sector.

ADS has resulted in tourist arrivals from China climbing from a modest 4 960
in 2003 to 24 437 in 2004.

By the end of 2004 stakeholders in the sector were worried about delays in
the launch and implementation of the policy, which was mooted early last

Things, however, began moving at a faster pace towards the end of last year
when the draft document was presented to stakeholders to make an input.

Among the pertinent issues to be addressed by the new policy document are
marketing initiatives, human resources development, product pricing,
infrastructure development, tax and other facets that drive or hinder the
development of tourism.

Zimbabwe's tourism sector has been facing a number of challenges over the
past four years, many of them stemming from the negative publicity the
country has been receiving from the local private and international media.

In its continued efforts to revive the sector, the Government has deployed
tourism attaches to its embassies in South Africa, France and Malaysia, from
where the country anticipates a significant number of arrivals.

Marketing efforts to turn around the country's third biggest foreign
currency earner are expected to yield positive results during the next two

Economic analysts have, however, maintained that the country needs to adopt
more aggressive marketing strategies to lure visitors from potential markets
such as Europe and Asia.

Last year, tourism grossed more than US$152,3 million (about $863 billion).

This compares favourably with tobacco exports which earned the country
US$226 million.
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'Zesa Tariff Hikes Inflationary'

The Herald (Harare)

January 14, 2005
Posted to the web January 14, 2005

Leonard Makombe

RECENT tariff increases by Zesa Holdings and other public utilities go
against the objective of further lowering inflation, the president of the
Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce, Mr Luxon Zembe, has said.

Zesa Holdings increased its tariffs by 126 percent, effective this month, as
part of the implementation of a cost reflective regime.

Electricity tariff increases would trigger a wave of price rises as both
industry and commerce would adjust and factor in the new production costs.

"Tariff increases have a serious impact on the economy and they have not
only been restricted to electricity as there have also been massive tariff
increases by the City of Harare.

"What it means is that these increases will have serious inflationary
pressure and ultimately reverse the gains we have so far realised," said Mr

Inflation has long been identified as the country's number one enemy. It
stood at 622 percent at the beginning of 2004 before it was doused to 149,3
percent in November last year.

Despite the success of the home-grown economic programme initiated by the
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development and the Reserve Bank of
Zimbabwe, the economy has remained sensitive to both internal and external

Electricity plays a very important role in the economy and any changes in
the pricing of power will have a ripple effect on all the other sectors.

"What is surprising is that some Government departments, especially
parastatals, are at the forefront (of) increasing tariffs and one asks what
private players would do," added Mr Zembe.

He said his organisation was not advocating a zero increase in tariffs, but
wanted it to be done with restraint so that the ongoing war against
inflation is won.

Mr Zembe added that apart from the sharp increase in electric power, there
has also been an increase in office rentals which have gone up by as much as
3 000 percent.

"It appears all the businesspeople would like to make up for their losses in
the last five years within one month, and this is also inflationary.

"As commerce we are not consulted on these increases and only get to know
about them when they are being announced," added Mr Zembe.

The foundation for the latest tariff hike could have been laid last year.

In the first place, Government engaged a South African consultant, Sad-Elec,
to look into the tariff structure in the country. The study concluded that
the $104 per kilowatt hour being charged by Zesa was much lower than the
recommended average of $235 per kilowatt hour.

Secondly, the Government announced that it would not meet the $1,14 trillion
electricity tariff subsidy this year, leaving the power utility with no
choice but to increase its tariffs.
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Major Boost for Energy Industry

The Herald (Harare)

January 14, 2005
Posted to the web January 14, 2005


ZIMBABWE'S energy industry has received a boost following the establishment
of a partnership incorporating Government, a local private power company and
two organs of the United Nations.

The development falls in line with the Ministry of Energy and Power
Development's mandate to enhance the development of renewable energy in
general and small hydropower in particular.

Because of the partnership, the country has since been conferred with the
Honorary Vice-Chairmanship of the International Network on Small Hydropower
(IN-SHP), a UN-sponsored non-governmental organisation, and that will see
the Government working closely with a local power development company,
PowerMate International.

"In the spirit of increasing synergies between Government and IN-SHP, the
Government of Zimbabwe, through the Ministry of Energy and Power
Development, has been conferred with the unique and prestigious post of
Honorary Vice-Chairmanship of the co-ordinating committee of the United
Nations-sponsored International Network on Small Hydropower," said the
ministry and the local company in a joint statement.

The Honorary Vice-Chairmanship will enable Zimbabwe to get involved in the
IN-SHP co-ordinating committee's decision and policy making activities.

PowerMate International has been in negotiations with IN-SHP regarding the
setting-up of a local sub-centre for the United Nations Development
Programme and the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, which
fund IN-SHP.

The IN-SHP sub-centre intends to support small hydropower development in
Africa and Zimbabwe will be among the first beneficiaries as initial focus
will be on Southern African Development Community countries.

For that cause, IN-SHP has donated a 30-kilowatt turbine to the Government
in support of the rural electrification programme.

The Energy and Power Development Ministry has invited a team of IN-SHP
experts on small hydropower to assist in identifying potential hydro sites
in Zimbabwe.

The team is already in the country and would also validate known potential
hydropower sites with the aim of producing a National Master Plan for
hydropower development in Zimbabwe.

If successful, these efforts will result in better internal power-generating
capacity for Zimbabwe, giving easier access to power for identified rural
communities. More so, Zimbabwe will have readily accessible technical,
capacity-building and financial support from other IN-SHP stakeholders.

If the small hydro sites are incorporated into the local power utility's
current grid, it is expected that there will be a decrease in the amount of
imported power, a development that would save the country billions in
foreign currency. Several potential hydropower sites have been identified on
perennial rivers in the Eastern Highlands and irrigation dams throughout the
country with one in Nyanga and another in Chimanimani.

One such project is already underway at Manyuchi Dam in the Mwenezi District
of Masvingo.

The turbines need to be located in a perennial flow of water, and most such
rivers are in the Eastern Highlands. If the flow from a dam is used, there
must be continuous flow of water from the dam rather than the high flows in
the dry season from irrigation dams and low or no flows in the wet season
when farmers can use rainfall.

IN-SHP said the need to facilitate energy development projects in Africa was
borne out of the realisation that less than 15 percent of the continent's
population has access to electrical power and account for 70 percent of the
world's two billion people without access to this critical service.
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International Journalists' Network

New media laws draw criticism from U.S.

Jan 14, 2005

The U.S. government has added its influential voice to those condemning the
new media law recently signed by Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe.

On January 11, the U.S. State Department rebuked Mugabe of Zimbabwe for
signing the new regulations, which tighten his control over Zimbabwean
journalists. The law would send journalists to prison for up to two years
for working without a government-issued license.

By speaking up, the administration added its weight to the protests of
international press freedom groups like the Committee to Protect Journalists
(CPJ) and Reporters Without Borders (RSF). Those organizations and others
had been trying to call international attention to the laws for months.

State Department spokesman Richard Boucher, during his daily press briefing
in Washington, said the administration was concerned about the law.

"Zimbabwe's media law has often been used to close down the country's
independent daily newspapers, and we think that the new amendments to this
law can only make matters worse," Boucher said. "The steps raise serious
doubts about whether the government is committed to holding free and fair
parliamentary elections in March.

"Stifling free discussion of political viewpoints through this law is
inconsistent with the election guidelines that were adopted by the South
African Development Community in August of 2004," Boucher said. "And so
we'll repeat our view that the government should allow independent daily
newspapers to reopen and should lift licensing restrictions on journalists."


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Mail and Guardian

Cosatu 'unwanted' in Zimbabwe

      Harare, Zimbabwe

      14 January 2005 09:25

The Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) has applied to the
Zimbabwean government to send a high-powered delegation on a fact-finding
mission to Zimbabwe at the end of the month, two months after officials from
the organisation were deported.

The purpose of the visit is to find out how the current crisis in the
country is affecting workers. Cosatu wants to include militant secretary
general Zwelinzima Vavi and president Willie Madisha in the delegation.

Vavi and Madisha were not part of the first Cosatu delegation that was
bundled out of Zimbabwe in November.

Cosatu spokesperson Peter Craven said the union had made the application
just before the Christmas holidays.

"We did not only write to the Zimbabwean government explaining why we want
to come," said Craven. "We also wrote to labour and other stakeholders. We
wrote the letter just before the holidays and we are still waiting for a
response from the Zimbabwean government.

"We want to get a better understanding of what is happening on the ground by
talking to all stakeholders," he said.

The South African labour body had planned its mission to Zimbabwe for this
month, but is still awaiting a response.

Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU) secretary general Wellington
Chibhebhe, who visited South Africa last week, also said Cosatu is "spelling
out its plans" to visit Zimbabwe.

In a move that alarmed labour movements in the region, Cosatu's last visit
ended when the government forced the South African visitors into a kombi and
ordered them out of the country.

The union later resolved to block the Beitbridge border post in retaliation.

Craven said other regional trade unions would support the blockade. A date
for the blockade has not yet been set.

Though Chibhebhe said there is nothing political about Cosatu's intentions,
the Zimbabwean government has repeated its claim that Cosatu is not welcome

"I do not know what they want in my country. I am having negotiations with
the ZCTU, a union in my country and our relations with the ZCTU have
improved," said Zimbabwe's Minister of Labour, Paul Mangwana.

"I am not interested in talking to them. They are a federation in South
Africa and they have no business to do in my country, except through the
bilateral relations we have with the ministry of labour in South Africa," he
told the country's Daily Mirror newspaper.

"They are unwanted people. Unwanted people are thrown away. If they come, we
will throw them into the next kombi," he said. -- Zimbabwe Independent, Sapa
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Business in Africa

Mending broken fences

Published: 14-JAN-05

It seems neighbours Malawi and Zimbabwe are kissing and making up after a
couple of years of strained trade relations. By Hobbs Gama in Blantyre

Malawi and Zimbabwe are two countries with a long history of trade
partnership which began even before independence. However, several recent
political-economic misfortunes have hampered the smooth implementation of
bilateral trade pacts, with issues of trade imbalance, flouted trading rules
and an unfavourable environment being bandied about.

For the past few years, Zimbabwe has failed to repay debts owed to Malawian
exporters and to remit pension funds for thousands of Malawian workers in
that country. This is largely because of a foreign exchange shortage, with
the depreciating Zimbabwe dollar at one stage trading at Zim $500 to US$1.

From the Malawian side, all hope is not lost. The strict financial measures
put in place by the administration of President Robert Mugabe have been
noted. The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe put a tight lid on borrowing from the
domestic financial market, which has seen interest rates drop from 600% to
200%, while the foreign reserve position has stabilised at $1.2bn - compared
to $300m in 2003.

And with recovering forex rates, Harare has since remitted part of the
outstanding payments for Malawian firms and pensioners. "The Malawi
government now has faith that active trade will resume. The challenge is
with the private sectors of the twocountries. Malawi is optimistic about
economic recovery in Zimbabwe following reduction in borrowing and inflation
rates in that country," said Eunice Kazembe, Malawi's minister for Trade and
Private Sector Development after a trade and customs meeting.

A Malawian delegation to Zimbabwe recently signed a fresh bilateral trade
accord. Known as the Reciprocal Investment Promotion and Protection
Agreement (RIPPA), it aims to promote and protect a conducive trading and
investment environment. Such arrangements give confidence to investors and
help promote inflows of investment into Zimbabwe and Malawi, said Zimbabwe's
minister of Finance and Economic Development, Herbert Murerwa.

"Foreign investment is critical to the economic development of any country
as it provides new technology, improved production methods, inflows of
foreign currency, access to international markets, joint venture
partnerships and helps to create employment," said Murerwa, rather stating
the obvious.

It was also agreed that Malawi would lift its duty-free import status on its
neighbour's products to protect its struggling markets until it recovered
from tough competition on the local and regional markets. It is a temporary
strategy to give respite to Malawian manufacturers. Previously there had
been temporary bans on Zimbabwean products like dressed chickens and other
poultry products, soaps, cooking oil, eggs and cement.

In recent times, Malawian markets have been choked with cheap Zimbabwean
imports, leaving no space for Malawian producers. Issues of exploiting the
local market as a dumping ground, and trade imbalances where Zimbabwean
producers dominated the market, naturally arose.

"The temporary scrapping of the duty-free landing aims to address the
dumping of Zimbabwean goods, which was hurting local manufacturers. The
proliferation of these products on our markets has hurt industries which
have linkages with the rural sector; as you know, development in the sector
concentrates on agricultural produce," said Kazembe.

In the past ten years, more than 30 Malawian companies have closed,
rendering a lot of people jobless and causing numerous social ills.
Wholesale liberalisation, characterised by an unregulated influx of foreign
products from around the more advanced industries of southern Africa and
abroad, are frequently singled out as the cause of the demise of Malawi's
infant industry. Currently, countries of the Southern Africa Development
Community (SADC) are grappling with the issue of tariff removal. In Harare,
ministers from the SADC states reviewed the regional trade protocol
established in 1996, which among other things provides for reduction of
tariffs on certain products and removal of some trade barriers.

The protocol is one of the adopted concepts to open up free circulation of
goods and opening up of trading activities to the wider regional market
before the countries explored the stiffer global market which cannot yet
import products from the developing world.

It looks as if the phasing out of tariffs is a broader problem. Most
countries of the region heavily depend on revenue collected from customs
duties to finance their budgets. In the case of the Malawi government, it
would not do away with certain tariffs that would limit its revenue base.

"There is need for government to turn around revenue collection before it
can fully implement the articles of the protocol," says Kazembe.

At a recent symposium in Blantyre, stakeholders in the economy talked at
length on the rampant proliferation in Malawi of fake products, some of them
smuggled in from neighbouring countries. The Malawi Confederation of
Chambers Commerce and Industry (MCCCI) and the Consumers Association of
Malawi (Cama) were vocal not only about the health hazards of counterfeit
and substandard products. They also noted that Malawian consumers reeling
under the impact of shrinking personal incomes are attracted by the cheaper
pricing of such products, and have since launched awareness campaigns on the
need to protect Malawi's local industries.

Government is presently working to enact a law that will provide for stiffer
punishment for producers and sellers of counterfeit products.

Another bone of contention in Malawi has been the negative impact of the
donor-imposed privatisation programme, as government was forced to shed its
unproductive state entities that were burdening already constrained state
budgets. Whatever its merits, privatisation has brought untold miseries
emanating from massive lay-offs and restructuring (downsizing of
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Business in Africa

Winds of change, or deceptive breezes?

Published: 14-JAN-05

With several peaceful elections taking place in Africa in 2004, is the
continent reaching new levels of political maturity? Not so fast, says Peter
van der Merwe

To the cynical observer, 2004 was a year of unspeakable atrocity for Africa.
It was a year in which the world recoiled at the mindless state-condoned
genocide in Darfur, where defenceless people clad in gaily-coloured swathes
of cloth were - and are - mown down in their thousands by blood-crazed
lunatics on horseback.

It was also a year in which harmless civilians fled the bloody
mineral-driven conflict in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic
of Congo, only to be hacked to pieces in the very refugee camps which were
supposed to give them shelter.

But true to form, 2004 was also a year of astonishing hope for the
continent. Who would have thought that Namibia's Sam Nujoma would have
backed down from a third term of power, golden handshake or not? And the
sight of Libyan maverick Muammar Gaddafi shaking hands with the likes of
British premier Tony Blair and French president Jacques Chirac was enough to
have the most seasoned political observers wiping their eyes in disbelief.

If anything, though, 2004 was the year of elections in Africa. Some
commentators waxed lyrical about a changing of the guard, and a fresh new
breeze blowing through Africa's halls of leadership. That may be premature,
considering the number of disputed results - and the number of hardened
autocrats still in power - but the very fact that elections were held offers
hope for a continent desperately in need of some good news.

In April, Algerian president Abdelaziz Bouteflika ensured a second term of
power by winning more than 80% of the vote in his country's elections. The
margin of victory led his rivals to claim "massive fraud", but the election
was a vast step forward from 1999, when Bouteflika's rivals withdrew on the
eve of the vote.

He now faces several challenges, not least of which is the dismal state of
party politics following years of supervision by army commanders. The army's
neutral posture in the 2004 elections was gratifying, but time will tell if
Bouteflika takes the tough decisions: reform of the judiciary, creating
genuine political accountability, creating jobs and cracking down on

In May, Malawi's Bingu wa Mutharika took power with a mere 36% of the total
vote. Voting was generally peaceful, but a chaotic voters' roll, abuse of
state funds by the ruling party and the failure of the public broadcasters
to give equitable coverage to the contesting parties during the campaign
period made for a deeply flawed poll.

Going forward, Malawi's government will have to rely on a series of shaky
alliances if it is to fight the twin scourges of AIDS and poverty which
bedevil this tiny nation. In October, Cameroon's Paul Biya won a landslide
victory with 82,2% of the vote in a farcically rigged election, with
international observers saying the poll had "lacked the necessary
credibility". The country's political system remains in chaos and human
rights abuses are on the rise.

The Biya regime is one of the most repressive and corrupt in the world.
Opposition parties continue to be repressed and during the election
campaign, government banned opposition meetings and detained government
critics, including political activists and journalists. This may be many
things, but democracy it is not.

Tunisia's elections in October were similarly controversial, with Zine
al-Abidine Ben Ali ostensibly winning 94,5% of the vote. The 68-year-old
ruler faced three challengers, who all openly conceded they had no chance of
unseating the incumbent.

Human rights and opposition groups were scathing about the elections, saying
they were little more than a smokescreen for the president's authoritarian
rule. They suggest Tunisia has escaped international criticism because it is
an ally of Europe and the United States in cracking down on Islamic
militants. It remains a blot on Africa's attempts to provide more effective

Botswana's October elections reinforced its reputation as one of the "most
stable, liberal and effective democracies" in Africa, but a senior political
analyst later called for the opposition to be strengthened after the ruling
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) won 44 of 57 parliamentary seats.

Khabele Matlosa, a senior research advisor at the Electoral Institute of
Southern Africa (EISA), told IRIN News that Botswana needed to opt for a
proportional representation (PR) voting system to provide the opposition
with a "bigger presence" in parliament. In the PR system a political party
receives a share of seats in direct proportion or equal to the number of
votes it garners in the election.

There were no surprises in Namibia, either, where long-time leader Sam
Nujoma's hand-picked successor, Hifikepunye Pohamba, romped home with 76,4%
of the popular vote. Nujoma rides off into the sunset with a fleet of luxury
vehicles, more free plane tickets than he can use, a fat payout, three
chauffeurs, two cooks, ten security staff and a partridge in a pear tree.
Who says freedom fighters do it for a cause?

In the meantime, two Namibian opposition parties filed a court application
to have the November national polls declared null and void, or to have all
the 830 000 ballots recounted. At time of going to press, no government
figures were losing any sleep over the challenge.

More good news came from Niger in December, where President Mamadou Tandja
became the country's first head of state to secure re-election as the arid
landlocked country enters a new era of political stability. Tandja is the
first elected leader to have completed a term in office without being
toppled by a coup or assassinated.

A retired army colonel, he won a resounding 65.5% percent of the vote to the
34.5% of challenger Mahamadou Issoufou. His challenge is to maintain
stability and bring some relief to a country rated the second-poorest in the

Ghana's John Kufuor was also re-elected in December, in spite of the best
efforts of rival John Evans Atta Mills, whose links with former ruler Jerry
Rawlings continue to haunt him.

Another unhappy election took place in Mozambique, where the ruling party's
Armando Guebuza won 63,7% of the vote amid screeches of protest from the
opposition about widespread irregularities. It remains to be seen whether
the opposition will take its place in parliament.

So what lies ahead for 2005? While 2004's polls were largely predictable,
this year's elections on the continent are a different kettle of fish,
featuring some of the continent's conflict hotspots.

First on the agenda is the March elections in Zimbabwe, which are already
shrouded in controversy as Robert Mugabe's government intimidates and
arrests opposition figures, passes ludicrously draconian laws designed to
favour itself, and generally gets up to as many dirty tricks as possible to
ensure the longevity of the Zanu-PF rule.

It is highly unlikely that voting will be either free or fair, as the
opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is unable to communicate
with its people. All independent media has been banned, and the
state-controlled mouthpieces will scarcely give the MDC the time of day, let
alone any coverage.

In strife-torn Burundi, squabbling over power-sharing arrangements has
caused delays in the election timetable. The general election has been
postponed from November 2004 to March 2005 and the presidential election to
April 2005. First, though, a thrice-postponed referendum must be held on a
new constitution.

Part of the problem is that the Tutsi minority refuses to accept the Arusha
agreement, which gives them 40% of the government to the Hutu majority's
60%. The country now risks continued instability and violence.

An even bigger headache is the scheduled elections in the DRC in June 2005,
which are looking in grave danger as new conflict breaks out. The elections
are supposed to mark the end of a two-year transitional period in which
Joseph Kabila ruled with the assistance of four former rebel leaders, but
renewed conflict with Rwanda has thrown this timetable into doubt.

It would be hard enough holding elections in the DRC at the best of times,
with 60 million people and precious little infrastructure. With war breaking
out, it would be impossible.

Also scheduled in October 2005 are elections in Cote d'Ivoire, which is
wracked with strife. The country is divided between the rebel-controlled
north and the government-controlled south, which includes the capital
Abidjan. A Thabo Mbeki-brokered peace plan is on the table, but much work
lies ahead if any ballots are to be marked this year.

Just to cap it all, elections are planned for the Central African Republic,
where General François Bozize seized power in 2003 in grand African style,
and Tanzania, where President Benjamin Mkapa's term of office comes to an
end in October.
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      By Emma Britton

      AFRICA is £160billion in debt and spends £8billion a year on its

      But 43 per cent of people living in sub-Saharan Africa live on 50p or
less a day.

      Sudan's debt is £8billion while Angola owes £5.7billion. But paying
off the money loaned by rich countries, the World Bank and the International
Monetary Fund means there is little left for health and education.
Zimbabwe's total debt stock stood at £2.3billion in 1999 and it pays £1.70
servicing its loans for every 53p it gets in aid.

      Nigeria originally borrowed £2.5billion from foreign governments and

      It has paid back £8.5billion and still owes £17billion. In 2000,
Rwanda's debt was £630million, according to 1999 figures from Jubilee
Research and DATA.

      Mozambique owes almost £3.7billion and Senegal around £2billion.

      Elsewhere, Malawi's debt stands at £1.4billion while Ethiopia owes

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From ZWNEWS, 14 January

New jailer for Bennett

Roy Bennett, the opposition MP jailed for shoving justice minister Patrick
Chinamasa during a parliamentary debate, has a new jailer. Prison officer
Gwanyiwa, who recently assumed responsibility for security and intelligence
at the jail in Mutoko where Bennett is incarcerated, is making life as
difficult as possible for Bennett, on top of what were already terrible
conditions inside the prison. Speaking this week, Bennett's wife Heather
reported on the victimisation of other prisoners who are friendly towards
her husband or assist him in any way. The number of prisoners sharing
Bennett's cell has also been increased, although other cells in the jail
have not been similarly treated. Access to his lawyers has also been made
more difficult. "On one recent visit, his lawyers were kept waiting for one
and a half hours while Officer Gwanyiwa made frantic calls to Harare trying
to thwart their visit. They were eventually permitted to see Roy, but
Gwanyiwa refused to move out of earshot of the conversation," said Heather,
paying tribute to the legal team who make the four hour round trip from
Harare whenever possible. Bennett also denied recent reports that he will
stand again for election in the Chimanimani constituency in this year's
parliamentary election. "I saw Roy on Saturday," his wife said. "He will not
make a final decision until he has consulted the people of Chimanimani and
his family. He is also waiting for the party to decide whether they will
participate in the election before evaluating his position. The people in
his constituency and his family have already suffered because of the
government's intolerance of any opposition. At the same time, he will not
abandon the people if they call for him, so that it is not a decision that
he will take lightly". Bennett is the first person to be sentenced to a
prison term by parliament. He is serving twelve month's hard labour, with an
further three months suspended.
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From Business Report (SA), 14 January

Zimbabwe's banks still face credibility battle

By Stella Mapenzauswa and MacDonald Dzirutwe

Harare - Zimbabwe's banking sector was likely to remain in a state of crisis
as surviving institutions struggled to regain investor credibility, analysts
said yesterday. Its economy in free-fall, Zimbabwe was plagued by liquidity
problems last year. Many banks collapsed and the central bank launched a
crackdown on the sector. Thousands of depositors are still reeling from the
sudden closure last month of financial services group CFX, capitalised at
Z$37.7 billion (R40 million), after the central bank put it under
curatorship citing poor liquidity. The move, which brought to eight the
number of locally owned banks to fold, left consumers stranded without cash
on Christmas eve. Several bank executives have been hauled before the courts
on charges of defrauding investors. "After what happened at CFX I think
smaller banks will continue to face serious credibility problems," said
private economic analyst James Jowa. "It will take quite some time for
depositors and investors to be convinced that the smaller banks can do
business as well as the traditional banks."

There are 10 banking institutions quoted on the country's stock exchange,
which was capitalised at Z$8.6 trillion in November. The fallout has seen
panicked depositors withdraw their money from the few survivors out of
dozens of mainly black-owned institutions that mushroomed in the 1990s when
President Robert Mugabe's government liberalised the sector. One of the
institutions, Kingdom Financial Holdings, worth Z$20.3 billion on the
Zimbabwe stock exchange, has sought to calm investors' nerves over the past
week through a series of press adverts proclaiming that it was making every
effort to remain viable. "We have had to bear with clients unease in light
of speculation that more banks would close," Kingdom said. Critics say the
government failed to put in place adequate regulations to ensure sound
practice and also left the country with more financial institutions than the
economy could sustain.

Leading economic consultant, John Robertson of Robertson Economic
Information Services, said: "We've still got many more banks than we had 10
years ago and the economy has shrunk to half the size of what it was 10
years ago. What we needed is bigger banks, not more banks. "It is probable
that we will not see any more failures but I think some of the banks that
survive will not do very good business for some time because the economy is
still shrinking despite the government saying that it is recovering," he
said. Zimbabwe's economy has contracted by nearly 30 percent since 1999 and
critics say 25 years of post-independence mismanagement by Mugabe's
government had left the country struggling with three-digit inflation,
unemployment of over 70 percent and chronic shortages of foreign currency
and fuel.
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From The Herald, 14 January

Chiyangwa sold secrets - lawyer

Court Reporter

Zanu PF Member of Parliament and Mashonaland West provincial chairman
Phillip Chiyangwa was paid up to US$10 000 a month by a South African agent
to supply information on economic and political developments in Zimbabwe,
the High Court heard yesterday. And in the Harare regional court, Regional
Magistrate Mr Peter Kumbawa yesterday dismissed the application by three
others facing similar charges under the Official Secrets Act to have their
guilty plea altered. Zimbabwe's ambassador-designate to Mozambique Godfrey
Dzvairo, Zanu-PF director for external affairs Itai Marchi and former
Metropolitan Bank company secretary Tendai Matambanadzo failed in their bid
after the magistrate rules there was no coercion or undue pressure exerted
on them. In the High Court, Chiyangwa's advocate, Advocate Chris Andersen,
gave some details of the charges in open court during a review hearing by
Justice Charles Hungwe on the magistrates' court's decision to place
Chiyangwa on remand and on his appeal for bail pending investigations and

Advocate Andersen asserted that passing information on political and
economic developments as stated in the charge could not be taken as
endangering the security of the State. This, Adv Andersen said, could not by
any definition be regarded as espionage. He added that there were not enough
details on the charge to enable the lower court to make an informed decision
on whether to place Chiyangwa on remand or not. Adv Andersen argued that the
trial court erred when the case was decided in the absence of the essential
elements of the charge. He also argued that it was impossible for the court
to determine objectively whether the prosecution had reasonable suspicion
that Chiyangwa committed the offence basing on scant information. "The
failure of the State to particularise the information is futile to the
charge. Therefore, accused should not have been placed on remand," said Adv
Andersen. Adv Andersen said it was impossible to infer South Africa as an
enemy of Zimbabwe considering the relationship between the two countries.
For his services, Chiyangwa was initially allegedly paid a monthly stipend
of US$4 000 and then increased to US$10 000 per month by the end of last

On the appeal for bail, Adv Andersen said Chiyangwa was a suitable candidate
in view of his political, business and social status in the country, a fact
the lower court should have considered most. He said chances that his client
might abscond were non-existent since he wanted to contest the primary
elections in his constituency. But according to the criteria set by the
ruling Zanu PF, Chiyangwa is not eligible to contest the election because he
has a pending court case. Chiyangwa was offering $10 million bail coupled
with stringent conditions. The State failed to respond to Adv Andersen's
submissions on the application for review of the refusal of remand, saying
the application came as a surprise. The prosecutor, Mr Brian Vito, said he
would need time to respond to the submissions. He, however, opposed bail,
insisting that the lower court did not misdirect itself when it denied
Chiyangwa bail. The magistrate properly considered all the relevant factors
in such matters, he said.

Urging the court not to place undue weight on the fact that Chiyangwa was
still innocent until proven guilty, Mr Vito said: "The presumption of
innocence must not be over-emphasised and bail must be refused." He said
Chiyangwa was facing serious charges involving matters of State security and
penalties provided for such cases attract a prison term of up to 25 years.
The information passed to the foreign agents, Mr Vito said, related to the
Presidium, political and economic developments. "The State is in possession
of the evidence from the persons responsible for paying Chiyangwa for his
services and who will be called to testify. It is the State's view that if
the applicant is allowed bail at this juncture, investigations will be
prejudiced," he said. Mr Vito said Chiyangwa should not be trusted since an
embassy official implicated in the case disappeared when he was recalled to

He said the investigations were of an extremely delicate and sensitive
nature as they involved relations between Zimbabwe and a neighbouring state.
Mr Vito averred that an assertion by the defence that South Africa could not
be construed as an enemy of Zimbabwe was misleading. "In intelligence
circles anybody is your potential enemy and, indeed in this case, it has not
been established who were the ultimate recipients of that information, but
the agent is based in South Africa," he said. He urged the court to dismiss
Chiyangwa's application, saying the judge should not be unduly influenced by
his pledges that he would not abscond if granted bail. But Justice Hungwe
said the court was concerned about the inadequacy of the charge, which, he
said, did not disclose the nature of the information supplied to foreign
agents. "We do not know whether the details are military, political or
economical as claimed by the State," the judge said. He said it could have
been helpful if the charges were substantiated for the court to arrive at an
informed decision. In response, Mr Vito said the details were mentioned in
the record of the proceedings. Judgment was reserved.

In the other case Dzvairo, Marchi and Matambanadzo had originally pleaded
guilty to contravening Section 4 of the Official Secrets Act and admitted to
selling State secrets to foreign powers but made a sudden U-turn asking the
court to change their pleas to not guilty. According to chief law officer
Mrs Florence Ziyambi the trio through their lawyers Mr Selby Hwacha and Mr
Canaan Dube, both of Dube, Manikai and Hwacha Legal Practitioners argued
there was coercion and pressure exerted on them to admit to the charges. Mrs
Ziyambi told The Herald soon after the hearing being held in camera for
security reasons that the presiding magistrate ruled that there was no
coercion or undue pressure exerted on the three. She said the magistrate
stated that the sudden move to alter their pleas was an attempt to delay the
court process. The court was satisfied that a plea of guilty by the trio was
not brought about as a result of fraud, coercion or undue influence, she
said. Mrs Ziyambi also said the trio's lawyers were challenging the
magistrate's decision at the High Court. Dzvairo, Marchi and Matambanadzo
who were arrested in mid December last year were further remanded in custody
to January 27. The three are jointly charged with Chinhoyi Member of
Parliament Phillip Chiyangwa and Zanu PF deputy director for security Kenny
Karidza for allegedly selling State secrets to foreign agents.
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