The ZIMBABWE Situation Our thoughts and prayers are with Zimbabwe
- may peace, truth and justice prevail.

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Nicole Itano


JOHANNESBURG - More than 2½ months after Zimbabwe's disputed
presidential elections, the country's food crisis has
deteriorated to near-famine proportions with the United
Nations estimating that 6 million people will require
emergency food aid in coming months.

The United Nations says the seizure of white-owned
commercial farms by ruling party supporters during the past
two years, coupled with the worst drought in 20 years, has
created an estimated deficit of 1.5 million tons of
Zimbabwe's staple crop, corn.

Thousands in rural areas already are receiving food aid,
despite the recent harvest, and donors plan to extend aid to
urban areas in the near future.

"Zimbabwe is facing a serious food crisis, even at harvest
time, and unless international food assistance is provided
urgently and adequately, there will be a serious famine and
loss of life in the coming months," concluded a joint report
by the World Food Program and the Food and Agriculture

In March, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe declared
victory over opposition candidate Morgan Tsvangirai, leader
of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), after a
campaign characterized by violence, intimidation and charges
of vote rigging.

The international community, including the United States,
has largely condemned the election as unfair and called Mr.
Mugabe's election illegitimate.

In the two years leading up to the campaign, the government
had tried to garner support among rural blacks by claiming
nearly 95 percent of white-owned farms for redistribution to
blacks and encouraging landless squatters to occupy the
listed farms.

In recent weeks, however, the government has begun kicking
squatters off occupied farms, distributing the land to
ruling party elite.

A report released last week by white farmers says that
hundreds of senior ruling party, military and police
officials, relatives of Mr. Mugabe and even journalists from
state media have been allocated land.

The information in the report was drawn up from government
advertisements and supported by information from individual

In a statement Thursday, Information Minister Jonathan Moyo
denied the report's findings but said government officials
were not excluded from a program to allocate land to 54,000
new black commercial farmers.

Meanwhile, the persecution of independent journalists and
opposition supporters continues.

Since March 15, when Zimbabwe's harsh new media law took
effect, 11 journalists have been arrested.

American citizen Andrew Meldrum, who writes for the Guardian
newspaper and is a permanent resident of Zimbabwe, and Lloyd
Mudiwa, a reporter for the Daily News, Zimbabwe's only
independent daily, appeared in court Thursday on a charge of
printing falsehoods in relation to a story about the
beheading of an opposition supporter. The Daily News
retracted the story after it could not substantiate it, but
the government has continued to press charges against the
reporters. The two journalists will be tried on June 12 and
June 20, respectively.

Local rights groups also say attacks against opposition
supporters are continuing at levels higher than before the

A report on post-election violence released last month by
the Amani Trust, a group that has been working against
political violence since the country became independent in
1980, determined there was a concerted campaign of
retribution against the MDC.

"The organized violence and torture has persisted after the
presidential election, and, to date, is being recorded at
levels higher than in the pre-election period," the report
says. "There is a campaign of retribution being carried out
against MDC supporters, and it is significant that this
violence was threatened prior to the election."

Amnesty International said in a report released May 28 that
the London-based rights group documented cases of
extrajudicial killings, torture, abductions and
disappearances in the run-up to the election.

The government also has begun enforcing new security laws
that make illegal almost any criticism of the government or
the president. At least six opposition activists and four
white farmers were arrested last month and charged with
subversion under a law passed in the months leading up to
the election.

The law, which carries a maximum penalty of 20 years in
prison, requires police permission for almost any political
meeting and allows police to break up even authorized

Still, Mr. Tsvangirai has hinted in recent weeks that the
MDC might organize a campaign of national disobedience and
has spent recent weeks traveling around the country and
speaking to voters.

"For the Zimbabwean people, the resolve must be stronger in
the face of an illegitimate government that stole an
election and seeks to impose itself on the people against
their will," he said.

This article was mailed from The Washington Times
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Farmers Pay to Stay On Land - Newspaper

UN Integrated Regional Information Networks
June 6, 2002
Posted to the web June 6, 2002

The Zimbabwe government is to investigate allegations that cabinet
ministers, officials from the ruling ZANU-PF and war veterans have extorted
millions of dollars from white commercial farmers to avoid eviction or the
sale of their land.
The country's Financial Gazette reported on Thursday that some farmers said
they had paid money to have their farms removed from the acquisition list of
the land reform programe, which targets more than 90 percent of white-owned
farms in Zimbabwe.
ZANU-PF secretary for administration Emmerson Mnangagwa told IRIN the
government's department of Home Affairs and National Security have ordered
the police to investigate the allegations.
"Regarding the allegations against the party we will wait for the outcome of
the government investigation. As a party we don't condone corruption at
all," he said.
The Zimbabwe government is currently running a controversial programme of
acquiring white-owned farms without compensation, for redistribution among
the landless.
A farmer told the Financial Gazette that money had been paid to ZANU-PF
chiefs and war veterans to have their farms delisted. Sources reportedly
also implicated three cabinet ministers and two provincial governors.
It was alleged that three Mashonaland Central farmers, Warwick, Duncan and
Simon Hale, who have a farm in the province's Nyabira area, paid a large
amount of money to Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association
leader Patrick Nyaruwata and his secretary-general Andy Mhlanga.
This was supposed to ensure that one of their properties was cleared of war
veterans and was spared further invasions because it was not listed for
They were also supposed to be allowed to harvest soyabeans at another of
their properties. The farmers would then have shared the proceeds from the
sale of the 500-hectare soyabean crop with the war veterans, as long as work
on the farm was not disrupted.
Under the agreement, the two war veterans were supposed to receive a further
amount from the sale of a wheat crop grown jointly by the Hales and war
veterans. The deal fell through though after the war veterans failed to
ensure that operations at one farm were not disrupted as agreed.
Nyaruwata denied the extortion allegations saying the money was from the
proceeds of a soyabean crop the war veterans had planted with the Hale
brothers and that he was still owed money.
Other allegations are that war veterans and farmers resettled under the land
redistribution programme demanded that owners of designated properties
should grow crops on a portion of the farms, at their cost, and then hand
over the proceeds. Farmers who have refused have been prevented from growing
any crops on their properties, the publication reported.
At the World Economic Forum in Durban, South Africa, on Thursday, Finance
Minister Simba Makoni said the country's critical food shortages had been
made worse by the land reform programme.
"It compounds, it exacerbates, but it is not the primary cause of the
problem," Associated Press quoted him as saying.
A Food and Agriculture Organisation and World Food Programme assessment said
last week that land reform and a severe drought were the major factors in
the collapse of agricultural production in Zimbabwe. About six million
people - just under half the population - are in need of food aid as a
result of the crisis

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      Denmark Closes Embassy in Zimbabwe

      Xinhuanet 2002-06-06 16:26:48
   HARARE, June 6 (Xinhuanet) -- The Danish embassy on Wednesday
officially closed its mission in Zimbabwe, the Herald newspaper
reported on Thursday.
   Danish ambassador Ole Moesby was quoted as saying that although
he had often been criticized for being contradictory in working
with the government while supporting the Movement for Democratic
Change (MDC), he was of the opinion that their operations were
transparent and democratic.
   "We have not been contradictory. We cherish all the time that
we operated in Zimbabwe since independence," he said.
   This was the first time that Moesby has openly admitted that
his country supported the MDC.
   Moesby said he felt that the official closure of the embassy
should be held on June 5 as this was also the day that a new
constitution, which limited the powers of the king and ushered in
new democratic dispensation, was born.
   Moesby and his ambassador colleagues were stopped at one time
by the police from holding a meeting with the MDC.
   Plans to cause discontent and revolt in Zimbabwe have
clandestinely been abetted using Danish and other country's
financial resources. Danish agencies have funded the MDC and its
voter education and other programs.  Enditem

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STATEMENT on the recent appointment of the
Media and Information Commission

June 5, 2002

The Media Monitoring Project views with grave concern the recent
appointment of commissioners to the Media and Information
Commission as provided for in the Access to Information and
Protection of Privacy Act.

MMPZ notes that:

Firstly, the Commission itself is not an independent body since it
is appointed by a government minister and is directly accountable
to him.

Secondly, that while the Commission purports to encourage and
enforce ethical and professional journalistic practice; the functions
of the Commission serve to restrict the public's constitutional rights
to freedom of expression and limits those wishing to exercise
these rights.

Thirdly, the composition of the Commission is not representative of
Zimbabwean society

And finally, the Commission has been constituted within an Act
that is in fact designed to restrict the free flow of information and
opinion, and the people's rights to these fundamental freedoms.

In the words of the former Minister of Justice, Zanu PF MP Eddison
Zvobgo, the law in its original form, is the "the most calculated
and determined assault on our liberties guaranteed by the
The substance of the Act has changed very little since then.

Freedom of expression and the free flow of information in the public
interest are the cornerstones of any democracy and should be
subject to minimal and specific restrictions.
This Act does precisely the opposite and its constitutionality
should be subjected to legal challenge. The commission set up to
enforce this anti-democratic legislation therefore represents a tool
by which government intends to curb access to information and the
practice of gathering and disseminating it for the benefit of the
nation. The arrest and harassment of journalists from the private
Press under this Act and the Public Order and Security Act is
clear evidence of this agenda.

As a result, MMPZ believes that the commission in its present
form commands no credibility. 

MMPZ therefore calls on government to repeal this prohibitive law
and recognize the public's rights to freedom of expression and the
essential role that the free flow of information plays in promoting
national social, economic and political development. MMPZ
believes that the establishment of a statutory commission to
encourage ethical journalistic practice is unnecessary and
restrictive and calls on government to support existing efforts to
establish the formation of a voluntary media council representative
of media and civic interests.

For more information, please contact the Project Coordinator,
Media Monitoring Project Zimbabwe, 15 Duthie Avenue, Alexandra
Park, Harare, Tel/fax: 263 4 703702, E-mail:
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SOUTHERN AFRICA: 13 million in need of food aid

JOHANNESBURG, 6 June (IRIN) - Close to 13 million people in six countries in Southern Africa are in need of food aid between now and March next year. That figure could rise further if the humanitarian response is delayed, or this season's winter harvest is lower than expected, UN agencies and NGOs warned on Thursday.

"A full blown crisis is not yet with us, but is very much on the horizon," World Food Programme (WFP) Deputy Executive Director Jean-Jacques Graisse said at the opening in Johannesburg of a two-day meeting on the regional food crisis, attended by representatives from a wide range of aid agencies, donors, and regional governments.

UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and WFP crop assessments in six countries - Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Lesotho and Swaziland - point to the region facing the worst food crisis since the 1992 drought. A total of 12.8 million people are in need of assistance through to March.

In Zimbabwe, the worst hit country, six million people - just under half of the population - are in need of food aid as a consequence of drought and the government's land reform programme. Faced with a foreign currency shortage and an inability to afford significant amounts of commercial imports, food aid is anticipated to account for an estimated 33 percent of the national cereal requirement.  

In Malawi, 3.2 million people or 28 percent of the population are in need of emergency assistance. In Zambia, provisional figures suggest that as many as 2.3 million or 21 percent of the population need food relief.

While the total numbers of people in Lesotho and Swaziland facing food emergencies are significantly smaller, they represent 20 and 21 percent respectively of their tiny populations. Mozambique is confronted with a localised problem in the south of the country and some central districts, but the impact of drought has tipped 515,000 people into crisis.

Nicholas Haan, Regional Programme Adviser for WFP's Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping unit, said the region was facing a "complex emergency". Aside from the impact of erratic rainfall at the beginning of 2002, political, economic and health factors have deepened the current crisis.

The vulnerability of the region's poor has been exacerbated by economic failures, in some cases inappropriate food security policies, the exhaustion of coping mechanisms, chronic malnutrition, and HIV/AIDS, he said.

According to figures from the UN children's agency UNICEF, 59 percent of Zambian children under five were already malnourished in 2000, 49 percent in Malawi, 44 percent in Lesotho and 27 percent in Zimbabwe.

A rise in food prices has robbed already poor people of the ability to buy enough to meet their needs. In Malawi, the price of the staple maize rocketed by more than 400 percent in March this year compared with the same period in 2001.

Even under normal conditions, subsistence farmers in Malawi can only grow 90 percent of their food needs. From December and the lean months until the next harvest in March, they eke out an existence by providing casual labour within the community using money earned to buy food on the market.

HIV/AIDS further undermines food security by reducing people's productivity, increases household costs as money and time is devoted to care for sick members, and breaks up families. 

"The situation is one of complex vulnerability," Mike O'Donnell, Save the Children's Fund emergency food security adviser told IRIN. "Already weakened survival systems break under the strain."

As a consequence of rising poverty, in some of the worst malnutrition-affected districts of Malawi, there has been a 50 percent drop in the number of children attending school. "This leads to an increase in child labour and an increase in their vulnerability to exploitation," said Nils Kastberg, director of UNICEF's office of emergency programmes.

The two-days of discussions, co-chaired by Graisse and Ross Mountain, Assistant Emergency Relief Coordinator of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), are aimed at reviewing the implications of the crisis over the next 12 months. They will address the need for a coherent humanitarian response, and resources required to address food and non-food requirements.

A tardy donor and ineffective national government response to the current crisis, could see the numbers of people at risk in the region rise even further, Haan warned. There was also the possibility that 2003 could be an El Nino year, which could result in another dry season.

He said that averting the immediate emergency would require the timely delivery of food aid. Targeting the needy, the development of comprehensive intervention strategies to compliment government efforts, and improvements to the functioning of the local market would also be needed.
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Zim Loses US $582m As Tourism Receipts Plunge

Financial Gazette (Harare)
June 6, 2002
Posted to the web June 6, 2002
Staff Reporter

ZIMBABWE lost more than US$582 million in tourism receipts in the past three
years due to the unstable operating climate and poor strategies employed to
revive the ailing industry, an analyst said this week.
Lance Cunningham, Dynamics International Inc executive for Africa and the
Indian Ocean regions, said the absence of a credible recovery plan and the
instability which accompanied the run-up to Zimbabwe's parliamentary and
presidential elections in the past two years worsened the prospects for the
tourism industry.
Zimbabwe's tourism recovery programme has been hindered by a barrage of
negative publicity accompanying the government's controversial land reform
plan as well as the absence of a clear strategy to revive the industry.
He said the tourism sector, whose earnings declined by about 40 percent in
2001, would have netted average earnings of US$291 million a year for the
past three years if it had maintained the 10 percent annual growth achieved
before 1999.
"Had a strategic plan been in place, Zimbabwe's tourism industry, at worst,
would have broken even under current conditions and, at best, could have
realised at least a 10 percent annual growth rate since 1999 while raising
progressive receipts of US$291million per annum in place of a paltry US$80
million," Cunningham said.
This means that the country has lost more than US$200 million a year in
tourism earnings in the past two years.
"The negative exponential in effect equates Zimbabwe's tourism receipt
losses closer to US$582 million for the two-year period pre-parliamentary
elections to pre-presidential elections and therefore reflects a far greater
receipt loss than indicated by the statisticians," he said.
The state-run Central Statistical Office says Zimbabwe's tourism receipts
declined from more than US$200 million in 1999 to US$80 million last year.
Zimbabwe's tourism industry, once regarded as the fastest growing economic
sector, has paid dearly for the country's bad-boy image during the past year
as safety and security fears keep most foreign tourists away.
The sector, which used to contribute about eight percent to Zimbabwe's
annual gross domestic product, has been severely affected by a barrage of
negative publicity surrounding the country's economic and socio-political
The main threat to the industry has been the orgy of violence perpetrated by
self-styled independence war veterans who have clashed with tourists and
other perceived sympathisers of the opposition Movement for Democratic
Cunningham said driven by a suitable management plan and operating in stable
political and economic conditions, Zimbabwe's tourism would have sustained a
potential 18 percent per annum growth average based on the preceding
five-year performance.
He cited poor management skills as the main impediment to the revival of the
tourism industry.
"Zimbabwe's tourism authority or relevant national management sector do not
possess the dynamic, decisive and courageous personality needs that share
clear visions, invigorate interest, propel accurate messaging through sound
and meaningful communications, project creative focus, aggressively drive
initiatives nor do they possess the determination to mobilise people of the
tourism industry to overcome fear and obstacles."

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Tourist Arrivals At Matopo National Park Cut By Half

Financial Gazette (Harare)
June 6, 2002
Posted to the web June 6, 2002
Staff Reporter

Tourist arrivals at the world-famous Matopo National Park have more than
halved in the past year because of demands by ruling ZANU PF supporters that
the estate should be designated for compulsory acquisition by the government
and the grave of imperialist Cecil John Rhodes exhumed from the park, it was
learnt this week.
Although tour operators in the area, community leaders and historians could
not provide details on the financial losses incurred by the national park,
they said potential revenue had been lost because tourists had cancelled
bookings citing statements by war veterans.
They said the presence of war veterans and other ZANU PF supporters on
commercials farms near the national park had also affected international
tourism inflows to the Matopos, a favourite destination for visitors from
South Africa and the United Kingdom keen to see where Rhodes, one of the
most famous imperialists is buried.
On a good year, about 10 000 international tourists are estimated to visit
the national park. But statistics obtained from tour operators show that
less than 2 000 international tourists visited the area last year and that
in the past six months, about a thousand had visited.
Stakeholders in the Matopo National Park said designation of the property
and removal of Rhodes' body to pave way for the resettlement of landless
people would render the park worthless, depriving Matabeleland South of its
only meaningful tourist site.
Matobo parliamentarian Lovemore Moyo said: "Somebody is bent on denying us
our sole foreign currency earner. People are already feeling the effect of
these uninformed statements from party propagandists."
He said scores of tour operators who had invested heavily in and around the
world heritage site by constructing safari camps and other tourist
facilities would be devastated if the park was designated and Rhodes' grave
"As a representative of the people in Matobo, I can tell you that people are
very disappointed and angered by those clamouring for the destruction of the
park," said a visibly angry Moyo.
"It's not only safari operators and the local community in Matobo that will
greatly be affected if the park is designated or Rhodes' grave removed. The
entire country stands to further suffer. If the park is tampered with, no
tourist will set foot in the area."
Valerie Bell, the director of the Bulawayo Publicity Association which
benefits from the proximity of the Matopo National Park to Zimbabwe's second
main city, added: "It's been a major blow to tourism in the area.
"Although there is a general decline in tourist visits due to a slump (in
the industry), tour operators and others earning a living from the park have
been hurt by calls to designate the park. The Department of National Parks
and Museums and Monuments will also suffer because a lot of tourists from
the United Kingdom and South Africa visit the area specifically to see
Rhodes' grave and the scenic mountainous surroundings. Rhodes bought the
land and gave it to the people of Matobo and Bulawayo. It is our heritage."
A Bulawayo-based historian said tampering with the Matopo National Park
would distort the history of southern Africa and of Zimbabwe in particular.
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We Have the Power, However Small, to Take the First Steps to Freedom

The Daily News (Harare)
June 6, 2002
Posted to the web June 6, 2002
Machele Zvichele, Zimbabwean in exile, USA

A spectre is haunting our leaders. Its name is not communism. Its name is
greed and it comes in the following forms: racketeering, extortion, bribery
and murder under a State order.
I am terrified and enraged with the corruption and cynicism shown by the
architects of injustice and tyranny who show no pangs of regret.
They are vampires who never get tired of our blood, dictators who never get
tired of our sweat and oppressors who never feel pity for our tears.
Equally troubling to me is the way public media journalists and irrational
professors push conventional wisdom to one side and engage in simplistic
demonisations of other politicians, races and the private Press in order to
gain political mileage while causing chaos and, to some extent, genocide.
These are the same dictators who try to wander past criticism in a way that
is incredibly naive.
For example, when they fail to address critical issues they turn to fanning
racial party hatred as a revolutionary ideology, encouraging their
supporters to vent their frustrations on history.
The seed of shame and resentment that was planted in the conquered Africa
during colonialism should not in any way be revived into a weapon for
personal gain by fanning its flames to consume democracy.
This regime has grown stale. It is besieged by State budget woes triggered
by fighting a war in a foreign land without heeding warnings to withdraw
from that misadventure; shattered dreams of its children who face
international ostracism and ruined careers of its workforce.
These are authentic cries of pain and rage from betrayed citizens
overwhelmingly muffled by autocratic rule and a repressive regime. Bloodshed
is the regime's history; lies are its only language and sacrilege its
State-run media shouldn't contribute to the resurgence of hatred upon
freedom of speech. It's like a dentist trying to pull out his own tooth.
Humans don't like self-destruction, at least on a cultural level. We tend to
gravitate towards things that preserve life.
But in times of need like these as we walk in the valley of the shadows of
betrayal, subjected to all this hatred and vilification, we need to wage a
different kind of war to decide the fate and destiny of our nation.
It's time for a renaissance for all of us. We should demand a free Press, an
independent judiciary and leaders who observe the rule of law.
Many of us, in fact, do have the power, however small, to take the first
step toward real freedom.
We should also deplore all who witness these gross violations of human
rights and justify them. They are not doing justice to us, but are
tarnishing their reputation by ill-judged interventions.
I would also like to alert them not to consider the battle has ended. These
fires which we are lighting now will reach architects of injustice and
tyranny all over the world and the will of the people shall reign and
democracy will be the order of the day.
My advice to my fellow Zimbabweans is: please stop being used to kill each

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Vets free for lack of evidence

Harare - Six members of the state-funded Zimbabwe Liberation War Veterans
Association (ZLWVA) were acquitted on Thursday of the abduction and murder
of an official of the political opposition.

Bulawayo High Court judge Lawrence Kamacha ruled that there was insufficient

The opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) deplored the outcome as
a travesty of justice, and alleged that the state had deliberately botched
the investigation to protect pro-Mugabe militants.

Patrick Nabanyama, an MDC polling agent, was abducted from his Bulawayo home
before the June 2000 parliamentary elections, and was never seen again.

The MDC alleges that at the time of his abduction Cain Nkala, a war
veterans' leader, later found murdered, was to testify in court against
massive corruption in the ZLWVA.

Nabanyama's widow, who has since been the target of death threats,
identified seven men as responsible, including Nkala.

Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe declared the murdered Nkala a national
hero and accused Britain and the MDC of collaborating in his death.

Mugabe initially granted amnesty to the other persons accused of the
Nabanyama abduction, but the six were finally brought to court this year.

International human rights groups voiced grave anxiety about the case over
the past two years.

A further 200 opposition supporters and 11 white farmers have been murdered
in Zimbabwe. None of those accused of these crimes have been brought to
trial. - Sapa-DPA
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Mail and Guardian

Peer system won't be tested on Zimbabwe... yet

      Gordon Bell

It is too early to use Zimbabwe as a test case for the peer review mechanism
proposed in the New Partnership for Africa's Development (Nepad), Mozambican
President Joaquim Chissano said on Wednesday.

The political and economic problems in Zimbabwe had come before the whole
concept of Nepad had been completed, understood by all, and put into
practice, he told delegates at the World Economic Forum's (WEF) Africa
Economic Summit in Durban.

Referring to the southern African country, Chissano said: "Nepad is like a
hut which we are building in our farm in order to get shelter against the
rain, it happens that while we are still building the shelter the rains come
in, and we get wet.

"And, it will be like that until the shelter is finished. When the shelter
is finished we will no longer get wet."

More than 700 delegates from 48 countries have assembled in the South
African east-coast city to exchange ideas on the implementation of Nepad,
the economic recovery plan for the continent.

Nepad proposes a system of peer review and possible sanctions for countries
that fail to adhere to principles of good governance and democracy.

Chissano said it was not right to doubt Africa's commitment to peer review
while there was still no clear mechanism in place.

"It does not mean that we are not doing anything now, we have started doing
something, because ours (peer review) is more a work to prevent conflict,
internal or inter-state conflict.

"The preventative measures are more important for us than all the other

Other southern African countries were working to help resolve Zimbabwe's

"The region is always there to try to bring calm and avoid the deterioration
of the conflict, we don't want war in Zimbabwe because it will affect the
whole region," he said.

South African Trade and Industry Minister Alec Erwin said peer review in
Africa was an exciting development.

It aimed to introduce codes of practice and sanctions that would encourage
governments to perform well, and could be in place in less than a year.

The Nepad Secretariat hoped African leaders would accept it in principle at
the African Union summit next month.

"It is something that is not far away, we are about a year away to the day
of the first peer review of countries and that is very exciting," he said.

Reporting back to delegates on an earlier workshop on the issue, Goldman
Sachs Europe vice chairman Guillermo de la Dehesa said delegates at that
meeting had identified a set of criteria for successful peer review.

This included the setting up of an independent African Court of Justice to
take decisions and introduce sanctions, and an early warning system to help
prevent conflict, he said.

Earlier Zimbabwean Finance Minister Simba Makoni told reporters that his
country was eligible to participate in Nepad.

He said Zimbabwe would not be the "makers or breakers" of Nepad.

"You're giving us too much importance if you say this," said Makoni.

He said Zimbabwe would submit itself to the peer review process once the
criteria had been set up. - Sapa
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U.N. judiciary investigator slams Zimbabwe again

GENEVA, June 6 - A United Nations investigator slammed Zimbabwe on Thursday
for arresting two senior officials from Zimbabwe's law society and for
''systematic attacks'' on judicial independence.

       In his latest statement voicing concern at the deteriorating rule of
law in Zimbabwe, Param Cumaraswamy, U.N. special rapporteur on the
independence of judges and lawyers, urged Harare to release the men and
withdraw all charges unconditionally.
       Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's government has turned up the heat
on critics and political opponents fighting to overturn his controversial
re-election as head of state in March.
       Cumaraswamy said Stenford Moyo, president of the Law Society of
Zimbabwe, and the organisation's executive secretary Wilbert Mapombere were
arrested on Monday for alleged possession of ''subversive'' documents
relating to ''mass action'' planned by the opposition Movement for
Democratic Change.
       They have been charged under what Cumaraswamy described as Zimbabwe's
''draconian'' public order and security act and could face up to 20 years in
       He said he had information that they had been arrested and charged
''for expressing their association's concerns over the deterioration of the
rule of law in Zimbabwe.''
       ''This latest arrest and detention further reflects the continuation
of the systematic attacks on the independence of judges and lawyers by the
government and its agencies,'' the Malaysian jurist said.

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Zimbabwe Law Society officials given bail on subversion charges


HARARE, Zimbabwe, June 6 - Facing growing international censure, a
Zimbabwean court Thursday granted bail to two top lawyers who had been
arrested on subversion charges.
       Sternford Moyo, president of the nation's Law Society and Wilbert
Mapombere, a former magistrate who is the society's secretary, have denied
accusations they urged the opposition to topple President Robert Mugabe.
       The U.S. government, the United Nations and an international legal
organization all strongly condemned the arrests.
       Magistrate Dominic Musavazi dismissed police requests to hold the two
in custody pending their next court appearance in August, said Joseph
Mafusire, acting for the lawyers' group.
       He freed them each on $95 bail and ordered them to surrender their
       Under strict new security laws, subversion carries a penalty of up to
20 years in jail.
       The lawyers' arrests Monday and their detention in police cells for
two nights followed a government crackdown on those viewed as critics. The
government has used new security and media laws to arrest journalists,
opposition leaders and prominent members of civil society.
       The International Bar Association, a global body of jurists and
lawyers, expressed its ''shock and deep concern'' over the arrests, saying
they were directly related to Moyo's strong stance on the rule of law and
judicial independence.
       The Law Society recently published a report condemning ''sustained
abuse, defamatory remarks and threats of violence'' by the state and ruling
party militants against independent judges.
       The State Department protested the arrests, condemning Zimbabwe's
''continuing harassment of the free press and now lawyers through repressive
       The United States and the European Union have imposed travel
restrictions against Mugabe and high-level Zimbabwe government officials.
       ''The U.S. is reviewing additional measures aimed at bringing
pressure to bear on Zimbabwe's leadership,'' the U.S. government said in a
statement. ''We are consulting with others in the international community
who are similarly concerned about the situation in Zimbabwe.''
       The U.N. special investigator on the freedom of judges and lawyers
Param Cumaraswamy said Thursday the arrests breached international legal
       He said he had ''grave concerns over the deterioration of the rule of
law and acceleration of governmental lawlessness'' in Zimbabwe.
       Zimbabwe has been suffering its worst political and economic crisis
since gaining independence from Britain in 1980. Local and international
human rights organizations have criticized government efforts to suppress
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No apology, says Daily News Paper stands by its court story on Jonathan Moyo

6/6/02 9:00:15 AM (GMT +2)

By Collin Chiwanza

THE Daily News stands by the story published on Tuesday in which St Mary’s Member of Parliament, Job Sikhala, alleged that Information Minister Jonathan Moyo threatened to “fix” him after Sikhala asked the minister to confirm a rumour that he allegedly had a homosexual affair with Alum Mpofu, the disgraced former chief executive officer of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation.

Geoff Nyarota, the Editor-in-Chief of The Daily News, said yesterday that court reports in newspapers were based on evidence led in a hearing and were, therefore, covered by qualified privilege.

Nyarota’s comments were supported by leading lawyers who said yesterday that Moyo would make legal history if he successfully sued The Daily News for reporting evidence given by a defendant in an open court of law.

Responding to Moyo’s statement in The Herald yesterday, Nyarota said: “This was the case in the report which appeared in The Daily News on Tuesday, in which Sikhala made the sensational allegation of lewd behaviour on the part of the Minister of Information.”

Nyarota said the responsibility of The Daily News in this case was to report details of Sikhala’s evidence, not to sit in judgment of his credibility as a witness. Sikhala was not a source of The Daily News in this case, as suggested by Moyo’s lawyer, Terrence Hussein, of the Hussein Ranchod and Company law firm.

Sikhala was merely an accused leading evidence in his defence in a court of law. It was up to Moyo to challenge Sikhala’s evidence in the court and The Daily News would report full details of his evidence.

“In case Hussein has forgotten, when his client alleged in the same court that Sikhala was a beggar who constantly pestered the minister for bus fare and pocket money, The Daily News published the minister’s utterances without checking with Sikhala. The MP’s lawyer did not complain or threaten us,” said Nyarota.

In covering court cases, newspapers are not required to seek the comment of either the accused or the complainant outside the court on evidence led in court.

“Hussein is correct in stating that The Daily News never contacted Professor Moyo to seek his response to the allegation made against him by Sikhala,” Nyarota said.

“The Daily News would be deemed to be in contempt of court if it approached Moyo outside court to seek his comment on court proceedings. Hussein knows this.”

Hussein alleged that The Daily News was “aware that Sikhala was using the forum of the court room to defame our client”.

Nyarota said: “We deny being privy to such knowledge. In any case, it is not the business of The Daily News to prevent people from defending themselves through whatever means.”

Media coverage of court proceedings, is covered by privilege. “If we have in any way disabused or exceeded the limits of that privilege, it is the court which should protest and not Moyo’s lawyer.

“We, therefore, have no basis on which to retract the story, or to apologise,” Nyarota said.

Nyarota’s comments yesterday received the backing of leading lawyers who dismissed Moyo’s threats and demand for an apology as futile.

Tawanda Hondora, the president of the Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights, said:
“In terms of the law, anything said in an open court of law is a matter of public record. This means that any member of the public may have access to that information.

The Daily News, therefore, has an obligation as a newspaper, to report on any matter of public interest, particularly that which has been made in an open court.”

Hondora said the minister was entitled to sue The Daily News, “but that does not entitle him to threaten The Daily News with criminal censure.

“That is a violation of Section 20 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe which guarantees freedom of expression and media freedom.

The response by Moyo should be seen and understood in the context of his definite attempts to silence journalists and the independent media, which has resulted in a number of journalists being arrested over the past several months.”

Senior Harare lawyer Beatrice Mtetwa of Kantor and Immerman said there was no sound legal basis upon which Moyo could sue The Daily News, because the paper merely reported what transpired in a public court.

Mtetwa said: “He can give it a try but he won’t win. What can he sue The Daily News for? Why can’t he sue the newspaper for reporting what he said against Sikhala when he was giving evidence in court a few days ago?

His evidence was given equal prominence by both The Daily News and The Herald.”

Mtetwa said it was up to the court to establish whether the evidence given by Sikhala was true or not. “But for The Daily News that is immaterial.

The paper merely reported what came up in court, Whether it was true or false, that is the duty of the court to establish, not journalists.”

Obert Gutu, of Gutu and Chikowero Associates: “As far as I am concerned, your paper simply reported what transpired in court. There was no comment whatsoever from you.

You to such knowledge. In any case, it is not the business of The Daily News to prevent people from defending themselves through whatever means.”

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Top ZBC presenters, DJs among 435 axed

6/6/02 9:14:30 AM (GMT +2)

By Columbus Mavhunga

VETERAN journalists, radio disc jockeys and TV presenters, including Tapfuma Machakaire, Eric Knight, Ezra Sibanda, Brenda Moyo, Inglam Nyathi, Aaron Chiwundura Moyo and Sam Sibanda, are among 435 out of about 900 Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC) workers to be laid off.

They will leave the State broadcaster at the end of the month as part of its multi-million dollar restructuring exercise.

Other personalities expected to vanish from the air and the screen include Gift Msipa, Elias Mange-Ndebele and Wilson Dakwa, who had become household names.

Others are Peter Banga, John Karimazondo, Haile Velaphi Mlangeni, Pina Mwenda, Musa Pilime, Patu Manala, Maguire Godzongere, Tichaona Sibanda, Charles Kawadza and Sithokozile Mpala.

They are among ZBC employees notified by Jennifer Tanyanyiwa, the former acting chief executive officer, that they would be retrenched.

“We have allocated staff to the new organisation and department structures on the basis of best fit,” said Tanyanyiwa in letters, dated 31 May, to the individual workers.
The letter does not state how much money the dismissed workers would receive as retrenchment packages.

Although the letter says they would leave their jobs by 30 June, some employees said they were informed as they were handed their letters yesterday not to report for work today.

The letter reads in part: “This means there is a need to undertake a retrenchment exercise for the people who cannot be accommodated in the new organisational structure. We regret to advise you that you have been selected for retrenchment.”

There has been chaos at Pockets Hill, the ZBC head office, for almost two years with the State broadcaster aimlessly firing and hiring workers, resulting in a bloated workforce.

In comparison, the Zambian national broadcaster, which has a capacity similar to the ZBC, has around 380 staffers.

The most experienced personalities at ZBC have left the organisation, citing frustration, arising from the restructuring exercise, or for greener pastures.

Nyathi, one of the most experienced broadcasters who was retrenched, joined the corporation in 1975.

He has 131 leave days to be cashed in lieu of leave, while 44 other retrenched workers have at least 150 days each.

Such workers will be replaced by inexperienced employees such as reporter Daisy Zambuko and presenter Kumbirai Nhongo, who have been in employment for only a few months.

Some of the workers to face the axe have been employed for less than a year, with most of them having been enticed from their lucrative jobs after the launch of the misguided Vision 30.

They include O’brien Rwafa, a former sports reporter at the government-mouthpiece The Herald. He was appointed an executive producer in December last year.

It could not be established how the ZBC would raise funds for the exercise, given the parlous state of its finances.

It is understood that the ZBC has not been remitting medical aid and pension fund contributions for its employees for quite some time now.

It only resumed last month after some of its employees had complained to the corporation that they had received letters from their medical aid societies saying they owed money.

Contacted for comment last night, Dr Gideon Gono, the ZBC chairman, said: "Telling the world how we will raise the funds would be jumping the gun. But I can tell you that when the time to pay the termination packages comes, we shall not be found wanting. As a board, we wouldn't have embarked on the exercise when we were not prepared. We will be able to meet our part of the bargain."

The corporation is still to pay retrenchment packages to its former executives axed to make way for the much-vaunted Vision 30.

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Court acquits war vets implicated in Nabanyama murder

6/6/02 9:16:53 AM (GMT +2)

From Chris Gande in Bulawayo

SIX war veterans implicated in the murder of an MDC polling agent, Patrick Nabanyama, who disappeared in 2000, were yesterday acquitted.

Justice Lawrence Kamocha, sitting at the Bulawayo High Court, said there was no evidence for a prima facie case against Ephraim Moyo, Simon Rwodzi, Aleck Moyo, Howard Ncube, Stan Ncube and Julius Sibanda.

The six had pleaded not guilty to the charge.

In his judgment, Kamocha said the State had failed to prove that Nabanyama had been killed by the six because there was no evidence to that effect.

Three of the war veterans, Stan Ncube, Howard Ncube and Ephraim Moyo, admitted questioning Nabanyama at their Entumbane offices.

One of the six, Ephraim Moyo, was positively identified by Nabanyama’s widow as part of the group which kidnapped her husband from their home.

The war veterans could not be charged for kidnapping Nabanyama because they are covered by the Presidential Amnesty of 2000 in which President Mugabe pardoned some lesser political crimes.

The war veterans admitted “questioning” Nabanyama saying that he had been suspected of burning down their Nketa office.

Nabanyama’s widow is currently under 24-hour guard by the police following threats on her life by a group of Zanu PF youths who warned her against implicating the war veterans in their trial.

David Gwenzi, the officer-in-charge of Nkulumane Police Station, also received threats after he had testified that Nabanyama made a report to the police station following threats on his life.

Vicky Mhlanga, one of the 16 people who gave evidence at the trial, said one of the war veterans had accused Nabanyama of taking away Zanu PF supporters to the MDC.
The war veterans, together with their late leader, Cain Nkala, had initially been charged with kidnapping.

The Attorney General’s Office later changed the charge to that of murder.

Nkala, who was himself kidnapped from his home, his body later being discovered buried in a shallow grave, is believed to have been ready to spill the beans as to what exactly happened to Nabanyama before he was killed.

It is that belief which fuelled widely held suspicions that Nkala’s death was a Zanu PF inside job.

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Nepad, African Union hold new hope for Africa says Germany

6/6/02 9:28:12 AM (GMT +2)

Staff Reporter

The German Foreign Minister, Joschka Fischer, said in Berlin recently two current political developments were of fundamental importance for Africa’s future: the transformation of the Organisation of African Unity into the African Union and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (Nepad) which was masterminded and advanced by a new generation of visionary and reform-oriented African leaders.

“This shows a new thinking, a new dynamism that will help Africa take its place in the international community,” he said.

“An Africa in which the rule of law, democracy and human rights are strengthened and built upon.” Fischer said

Nepad was a political tool for launching the urgently required political and economic reforms.

Africa, he observed, was the one continent that had least benefited from globalisation.
“It is impressive just how clearly the Nepad initiative concentrates on Africa’s problems today, and on the necessary approaches to solve them.

“The founding document of Nepad spells out clearly that peace and justice are two sides of the same coin. Together they form the basic pre-requisite for sustainable development in Africa.”

He commended Nepad for its commitment to fighting corruption and poor governance, on enhancing democracy, the rule of law and human rights, on peaceful conflict resolution, transparent financial markets and more effective promotion of the private sector.

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Police crush UZ students’ demo

6/6/02 9:15:23 AM (GMT +2)

By Lloyd Mudiwa

THE riot police yesterday brutally crushed a demonstration by University of Zimbabwe (UZ) students over the late disbursement of pay-outs.

One student claimed the police pounded his knee with batons even after he had pleaded with them not to hit him there as the knee had been operated on in 1994.

The police pounced on the students as they marched peacefully from the Students’ Services Centre to the administration block to demand a meeting with the Vice-Chancellor, Professor Graham Hill, who they accused of tricking them.

The students said Hill cheated them last Saturday into withdrawing a High Court application against the UZ, the Ministry of Higher Education and Technology, and the Commercial Bank of Zimbabwe (CBZ) before they were given their payouts. But by yesterday not a single student had been paid.

Elizabeth Karonga, the UZ’s director of information and publicity, could not be reached for comment. The police, spilling out of three trucks, battered the fleeing students with batons.

Reporters saw about six policemen in a truck, registration number ZRP 771D, dropping off three students they had earlier arrested.

They ganged up on one student and beat him with their batons.

Masimba Maponde, a first-year Bachelor of Arts student, pleaded with the police not to hit the knee on which he was operated in 1994, but they would not listen and proceeded to pound the knee.

A sobbing Maponde said: “They hit me even harder when I told them my knee was injured.”

A dispute over payouts in April last year resulted in the death of Batanai Hadzizi, another first-year student. A magistrate ruled in an inquest that he died as a result of injuries sustained in a beating by the riot police on the campus.

Nkululeko Nyoni, the secretary-general of the Students’ Executive Council, yesterday accused the police of unnecessarily provoking students.

Angry students on Monday rioted over the late disbursement of payouts, stoning windows and motor vehicles, including the Vice-Chancellor’s. Calm returned to the university on Tuesday.

Nyoni said Hill urged students to withdraw the court case before the CBZ and the ministry could discuss the issue of payouts with them.

The students last month requested the High Court to urgently handle their application for an order barring the ministry from deducting money from their loans, through the CBZ, to recover loan debts.

The students, also wanted to bar the UZ from deducting $427 from each of their payouts to pay for damage to campus property during last year’s demonstrations.

But Justice Anne Marie Gowora said the matter was not urgent and would be dealt with as any other ordinary matter.

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LEADER PAGE Thursday   6  , June
Inflexible will needed of leaders to better people’s lives

6/6/02 9:08:23 AM (GMT +2)

By Marko Phiri

AFRICA’S statistical representation in a number of spheres reads like the Apocalypse. Each year non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the United Nations and its various agencies compile reports documenting the state of affairs in health, economics, politics and human rights.

Human development reports are put together to give us an idea where we are at and where we are going.

These statistics are presumably then used by governments to guide them in policy formulation and chart a new course towards the betterment of the people’s lives.

Yet seemingly because these statistics have been flashed with so much frequency over the years, they have failed to strike a chord as governments continue to pursue programmes that are totally divorced from what those numbers would demand.

The latest uproar in Zimbabwe’s education is a prime example. As many people dream about when they will be able to get out of here to a land where fathers will regain their sense of self-worth as breadwinners, the best that the country’s policy makers can come up with is changing the nomenclature of schools, and prescribing a kind of one-size-fits-all kind of schoolchildren’s uniform.

How it seeks to advance the country’s education is yet to be convincingly explained by the latter-day Einstein who came up with the master plan.

But, such becomes the norm when ruling parties fail to address pressing issues that ideally seek to improve the lives of the people.

Probably one of the most disturbing findings to ever come out in the 1990s, was that sub-Saharan Africa had the highest rates of overall infant mortality on earth, the shortest life expectancy, the lowest per capita income and the fastest rate of population increase.

It appeared to be something from a science fiction flick – as soon as one person died, another was instantly born to replace him!

Aids is at the point of overtaking malaria as the major cause of death in Africa, with 90 percent of the victims across the world, the World Bank helpfully tells us.

Perhaps this link between poverty and disease ought to convince the Harare mayor who has been dithering about whether or not to take up the obscene opulence “given” to him by the ruling party.

It would set a moral awareness that one cannot live amid gaudy trappings when his kith and kin lead such wretched existence.

We cannot talk about the already ruling elites of this continent because they have failed to embrace the realities of the lives led by their constituencies.

So, for a new man who assumes a seemingly enviable post like that of Mayor Elias Mudzuri and everybody else who occupies the so-called mayoral mansions must, therefore, show they empathise with the “masses in the mud” by accepting only the modest that would give credence to their claims that they are one with the people who voted them into office.

They should be prepared to present themselves as a new breed of political leaders who, almost in a fashion, would seek to defy the age-old philosophy of African politics that to be elected into public office is to bid farewell to the ghettos where one grew up.

And not only that, but assume also a kind of life that would have every child aspiring to.
“When I grow up I want to be a politician,” the young schoolchildren would soon be saying!

And still, the delivery of services not withstanding. Unless there is a rebirth in the perverted idealism of what election into public office is about, then even the new leaders who come after the founding fathers will preoccupy themselves with making Africa’s statistical representation one that evokes tears, and curses as to “Why us?”

The streets of Harare that teem with young boys and girls, grandmothers who find the open sky as their only “haven” as soon as the sun disappears are themselves proof enough to convince one to reject all the perks that “befit the status of a mayor or minister”.

Amid all the poverty that has become ubiquitous, it is not uncommon that these issues are pushed to the periphery of government priorities because it is felt that these have been part of African existence since time immemorial, therefore nothing can be done in the 21st Century to clean up the streets of these children.

The failure of governments to deal with these social challenges even morbidly leads residents to tolerate that this indeed is the reality of their existence, so waking up one day to find the streets without the children would be something equivalent to a culture shock.

These issues are pushed from the agenda of ruling parties, and left to the NGOs who previously were accepted as governments’ indispensable partners in developmental programmes but have recently become some kind of persona non grata, here and elsewhere in Africa.

But interestingly, parties are elected into the seat of power on the basis of manifestos that proclaim the fighting of poverty as their core focus!

But as Africa attempts to rise from this odious history of politics through efforts like the New Partnership for Africa’s Development, it will be a long time before these ideals are realised as long as there exist people who imagine Kamuzu Banda, Mobutu Sese Seko and other kleptocrats did not do enough justice by plundering their countries’ wealth.

Hope may lie in the rotation of power through the election of new brains free from the fatigue that has been building up from decades in power, and with the leaders subsequently being removed from the harsh realities of the people’s lives on the ground.

Unless the new office bearers, at least that is if they are “given” the chance by the ruling parties, be they at council or national level are ready to make election into political office a vocation so to speak, for this implies God has a hand in it therefore endowing one with all those Godly virtues, then we will be met by the same statistics we saw during the time of Mobutu and other “great men of Africa”.

And which anyway still obtain today. The African leaders in UNESCO’s Audience Africa in Paris, 1995, under the theme, Social Development: African Priorities, issued a declaration part of which read: “As long as the idea of peace is mistreated in Africa, efforts to promote development will never live up to expectation.

Armed conflicts, civil wars, border disputes, tribalism and ethnic rivalries, political disputes and the exploitation of religion for partisan ends make it only realistic to regard political instability of war as an epiphenomenon but as a serious and ongoing trend.

We can reverse this trend, which has gone on for 50 years, but we shall need inflexible will.”

It is that same inflexible will still needed today for a committed betterment of the lives of the lot here, not useless talk about identical school uniform.

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ZimRights slams onslaught against lawyers, journalists

6/6/02 9:16:02 AM (GMT +2)

From Brian Mangwende in Mutare

The Zimbabwe Human Rights Association (Zimrights) has condemned the unprecedented, persistent onslaught on the freedom of journalists, lawyers and human rights activitists by the government.

The condemnation comes amid a barrage of attacks by security agents on journalists working for the independent media and human rights defenders, including lawyers and human rights watchdog groups, such as Amani Trust, Zimrights, Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace and the Legal Resources Foundation.

Arnold Tsunga, Zimrights’ national chairperson said: “The wanton, unjustified and indiscriminate arrest of journalists from the private media violates the basic right of freedom of expression and the right to hold opinions and to receive and/or communicate information without interference, which rights are enshrined in Section 20 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe.”

Since the Public Order and Security and the Access to Information and Protection of Privacy Bills became laws, 16 journalists, all from the privately-owned media, including the newspapers’ editors have been arrested for allegedly contravening sections of the new laws.

The international community has said Zimbabwe is one of the worst countries for journalists to practise in after Parliament passed into law the widely criticised bills.

The net widened on Monday when Sternford Moyo, the president of the Law Society of Zimbabwe and Wilbert Mapombere, the society’s secretary were arrested on allegations that they had in their possession subversive documents relating to a planned mass action to oust Mugabe from power or force him into a rerun of the March presidential election he won amid controversy.

Last week, the police in Mutare searched the offices of Innocent Gonese, a lawyer, MDC’s parliamentary chief whip and MP for Mutare North.

Tsunga said the search at Gonese’s law offices was an infringement on the confidentiality between the lawyer and his clients.

He said: “It’s illegal to search law firms unless the police have sound evidence that the lawyer is harbouring at his offices proceeds, for example, from a heist. Once this unjustified clampdown on law firms is allowed to continue, the justice system will be seriously affected. That type of action is not allowed in any civilised society.”

In an unprecedented exodus of judges from both the Supreme and High courts, five judges have since left the bench because of harassment by the government, he said.

“Zimrights also notes with concern the recent thrust by the government to clamp down on lawyers and the judiciary,” Tsunga said. “Many judges have resigned or have been forced to quit the bench, including Chief Justice Gubbay and Justices McNally, Ebrahim, Chatikobo, Devittee and Gillespie. Unwarranted demonstrations have been organised against magistrates.”

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French fund projects

6/6/02 9:18:54 AM (GMT +2)

Staff Reporter

The French Ambassador to Zimbabwe, Didier Ferrand, recently visited Masvingo province where he inspected two irrigation projects funded by his government for a total of $1 470 000.

He first visited Chitanga communal area in Mwenezi, where a dam is being repaired by the local community with funding totalling about $490 000 from the French government.

He later toured Nyimai Dam in Chivi District, which was repaired through a French injection of about $980 000.

“This project is particularly important because Masvingo province, like most of Zimbabwe, is suffering from a severe drought. The Nyimai Dam project is a perfect example of an integrated approach, encompassing economic, social and environmental dimension of community management methods,” Ferrand said.

Nyimai Dam serves more than 4 000 people who are now growing maize and vegetables by irrigation.

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