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Zim Independent

Malaysia probes Mugabe donation
Dumisani Muleya
THE Malaysian government has been urged to investigate former premier
Mahathir Mohamad's "donations" for the construction of President Robert
Mugabe's lavish Borrowdale home. This follows disclosures Mugabe made in an
interview this week.

According to media reports from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian parliamentary
opposition leader Lim Kit Siang said authorities should probe Mugabe's
statement - which he described as "shocking" - that Mahathir donated timber
for the construction of the mansion.

"I call on the (Malaysian) government to issue a ministerial statement as we
want to know whether we have secretly and unlawfully funded the 25-bedroom
mansion," Lim said on Tuesday.

"(There is) no moral and political reason for us to do that. We know Mugabe
is a good friend of Mahathir, but there was no parliamentary approval to
fund this corrupt regime."

In an interview with Sky News on Monday, Mugabe said his mansion was not
financed out of public coffers, but from donations from the Malaysian and
Chinese governments.

"We have had assistance of course, some countries have donated, they have
got some timber from Malaysia thanks to my good friend, former prime
minister Mahathir," Mugabe said. "The Chinese also have donated tiles and so

Mugabe said if there were materials which were not available here, he would
import them. Asked where he was getting the scarce foreign currency to
import the materials, he said "from the bank".

Mahathir was close to Mugabe but new Malaysian Prime Minister Ahmad Badawi
has reportedly sought to distance himself from the Zimbabwean leader despite
attempts by Harare to present him as an ally.

Mugabe visited Malaysia in January during his annual break and managed to
see Ahmad for a short courtesy call.

Lim, who is an Ipoh Timor MP, said there should be a thorough probe of the
financing of Mugabe's house.

He also said that if it was true Malaysia had funded Mugabe's house, it
would be "unprecedented" for a government to fund another government
leader's mansion.

Deputy Foreign minister Joseph Salang Gandum told Malaysiakini, an online
daily publication, that he was unaware of Mugabe's statement on Malaysian

"I will check on it. But I don't think the government would have funded the
mansion (although) we do assist (the Zimbabwean government) in other aspects
such as human resources," he said. "But it is quite impossible (that we have
funded) a mansion."

Asked whether an investigation would be instituted, he said: "Let us check

Meanwhile, corruption watchdog Kuala Lumpur Society for Transparency and
Integrity said the government owed the public an explanation.

"If true, the government must explain why it funded such a luxury for a
political head reputed to be a dictator," said deputy president Param
Cumaraswamy, formerly UN rapporteur on the independence of the judiciary.
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Zim Independent

Mawere blasts Gono over arrest
Dumisani Muleya/Augustine Mukaro
ZIMBABWEAN business magnate Mutumwa Mawere, who was released yesterday in
South Africa on R50 000 bail after being arrested on charges of
externalising foreign currency, has slammed Reserve Bank governor Gideon
Gono for "displaying venom" in his duties.

In an interview, Mawere said Gono was pursuing individuals and companies on
trumped-up charges and in the process destroying the foundation of
indigenous businesses as well as the economy at large.

"It is unfortunate and regrettable that Zimbabwe has sunk so low. For
someone like me who has done so much for Zimbabwe to be accused on the basis
of trumped-up charges shows that something has gone terribly wrong
somewhere," Mawere said.

"Whose interests are being served by this crusade is not clear. What is
clear though is that it is destroying the foundations of black business in
Zimbabwe and replacing them with a RBZ governor who wants to be chief
executive of Zimbabwe Inc."

Mawere said it was "appalling" to see a country engaged in an act of
self-destruction "with Gono exerting more energy in hounding individuals -
as if he was a police commissioner - than working on economic recovery.

"Sound economic policies can never be substituted with a display of venom
and arresting individuals. People can try that but they will fail in
ensuring economic recovery," he said.

"If Zimbabweans spend more time reasoning together on issues than throwing
each other into cells it would be better for all of us. RBZ governors in
history have been known to focus on core issues than spending time arresting

Mawere said the allegations against him were largely baseless while some
were actually lies.

Mawere was arrested by South African police on Tuesday over foreign currency
externalisation charges back home. He was yesterday released on R50 000 bail
after appearing in a Johannesburg magistrate's court.

Police spokesperson Mary Martins-Elbrecht said Mawere was released on bail
after an initial court appearance at a Randburg magistrate's court in the
South African commercial capital.

"He appeared in court today (yesterday) and was released on R50 000 bail. He
was remanded out of custody to June 29," Martins-Elbrecht said.

"He is not facing any charges in South Africa because he was picked up on a
Zimbabwean warrant of arrest by Interpol."

Martins-Elbrecht confirmed that Mawere has dual citizenship - that of
Zimbabwe and South Africa - and his extradition to Harare would have to be
determined by the courts.

"He has dual citizenship and it's up to the courts to determine whether he
can be extradited to Zimbabwe or not."

Mawere's arrest came as police intensified their blitz on businessmen
suspected of corrupt business practices.

Mawere has rejected the allegations of externalisation, saying he was not a
Zimbabwean resident and did not sit on his companies' boards.

It was not possible yesterday to confirm reports that Mawere was exposed by
a whistleblower who had met a Zimbabwean investigating team from the Reserve
Bank and police.

Mawere gained prominence in the mid-1990s after he bought the country's
largest asbestos mining conglomerate, Shabani/Mashava Mines, which is part
of the huge Africa Resources Ltd, with a sovereign guarantee

Mawere's business empire which has tentacles in almost all important sectors
of the economy includes Africa Associated Mines. He also has confirmed
interests in eight listed companies, General Beltings, Steelnet, Turnall,
Fidelity Life, Zimre, Nicoz Diamond, CFI Holdings and First Bank. His firm
Ukubambana/Kubatana Investments (UKI) also has large stakes in other listed
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Zim Independent

Business, labour snub NECF meeting
Godfrey Marawanyika/ Shakeman Mugari
BUSINESS leaders and labour yesterday snubbed a National Economic
Consultative Forum (NECF) meeting on price stabilisation, a move that once
again throws into question the relevence on the forum to economic revival.

The meeting, addressed by Labour minister Paul Mangwana, was poorly
attended. Only 64 instead of 228 invited delegates came. Most stakeholders
sent junior officers as observers. There were also a number of reserved
tables that remained vacant throughout the meeting which lasted the whole

Acting Finance minister Herbert Murerwa was one of the prominent absentees
from the meeting despite being invited by the forum. He had been expected to
make a speech.

The Zimbabwe Con-gress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), Confederation of Zimbabwe
Industries (CZI), and Zesa Holdings also did not attend despite having been
invited. The three organisations are key economic players who were expected
to contribute to the discussion on prices and wage increases.

There were no bankers or hoteliers and institutional talking heads who had
become a common sight at what has now labelled a national talk show.
However, the government-backed Zimbabwe Federation of Trade Unions did

Addressing the few delegates at the meeting, Mangwana said the tripartite
negotiating forum (TNF) would continue with or without the ZCTU's

"Considering the urgency with which we have to address some issues of our
economy, the TNF has to continue with those who can participate in the
national interest," he said.

"I am happy to say the TNF agreed that we should proceed and leave the door
open for ZCTU to rejoin," he said.

The ZCTU has said they will only re-join the TNF sometime in September. The
ZCTU pulled out of the TNF in April last year after government unilaterally
increased the price of fuel without the consent of the social partners.

"We did what we did because as government we look at the broader framework
when designing a national framework," Mangwana said. "As government we
should protect the farmers, unemployed, and everybody, that is why we did
what we did (increasing fuel) and as government everything rests on our

NECF spokesperson Dennis Rwafa failed to explain why business leaders and
Zesa officials failed to attend the meeting.

"We sent invites to them and they did not turn up for the meeting. We don't
know why they did that," Rwafa said.

"But I can assure you they would have been grilled in the meeting had they
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Zim Independent

Workers take NRZ to court over Cola
Loughty Dube
THE National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) has suspended the 25% cost of living
adjustment it awarded its employees at the beginning of the year resulting
in the workers' union seeking redress through labour arbitration.

The labour dispute went for arbitration on Friday last week, after the two
parties failed to reconcile during an initial arbitration.

Zimbabwe Amalgamated Railways Union (Zaru) secretary-general Gideon Shoko
confirmed that the matter had gone for compulsory arbitration.

"The NRZ unilaterally decided to withdraw the cost of living adjustment
(Cola) it awarded workers," said Shoko. "We feel that since the cost of
living adjustment was awarded after negotiations between the workers and the
employer, it is illegal for the employer to unilaterally withdraw the

The NRZ, crippled by a huge salary bill and a non-viable business
environment, last month delayed in paying workers' salaries owing to lack of

"The parties failed to agree on Friday and the matter has been referred for
compulsory arbitration," Shoko said.

The troubled parastatal, after failing to pay the cost of living adjustment
to workers for the month of April, then informed workers that it would
instead pay the workers cash in lieu of leave days only.

"Under Section 93 of the Amended Labour Relations Act the NRZ violated the
agreement we reached at the beginning of the year during negotiations by
withdrawing the 25% without notice and we do not even know when and how they
will pay for the leave days," Shoko said.

Sources within NRZ said the company had also frozen promotions and
recruitment of staff in a bid to contain the ballooning wage bill that saw
it pay its workers in two tranches at the beginning of May long after pay

"The situation is very bad. Management has shelved the hiring of new people
yet we have critical positions in signals and communications that have to be
filled as a matter of urgency because the vacancies there compromise the
safety of the travelling public," said a source.

The parastatal has also banned overtime payments to staff and has introduced
a stringent clocking-in system at all levels.

The NRZ is paying R6 million in monthly charges to Spoornet for wagons the
cash-strapped rail company is failing to return.

The NRZ, which has embarked on a $30 billion recapitalisation exercise, has
60 usable locomotives when it needs 108 to operate viably.

"NRZ management violated a standing labour agreement and there is no way we
are going to agree to that and if we are not happy with the decision we will
appeal to the Labour Court," said Shoko.

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Zim Independent

Nkomo tells would-be candidates to cool it
Loughty Dube
ZANU PF national chairman John Nkomo says people who have imposed themselves
as 2005 parliamentary election candidates in constituencies throughout the
country are wasting their time as the party has not yet opened nominations.

"There has not been any nomination call from the party for parliamentary
candidates and people who are already doing so are wasting their time,"
Nkomo told the Zimbabwe Independent this week.

"Until a time when (Zanu PF national commissar Elliot) Manyika makes an
announcement to that effect, there are no nominations."

Several Zanu PF officials from around the country have put their names
forward as Zanu PF candidates ahead of the 2005 parliamentary poll.

Zanu PF leaders who have already declared themselves candidates or claim to
have been nominated for next year's general election include Jonathan Moyo
in Tsholotsho, Walter Muzembi in Masvingo South, and retired Major Kudzai
Mbudzi who has openly said he is the people's choice in Masvingo North ahead
of sitting MP Stan Mudenge.

Others are Philip Chiyangwa (Chinhoyi), Andrew Langa (Insiza), Obert Mpofu
(Bubi) and Abednico Ncube (Gwanda South).

"As the national chairman of the party I am not aware that the process of
nominating candidates has started but those who are doing so are exercising
their constitutional rights but they will not be recognised by the party,"
Nkomo said.

Senior Zanu PF officials have used coercion to cow constituency and
grassroots leaders into backing their bids to stand as the party's sole

Nkomo could not be drawn into revealing whether the party would hold primary
elections ahead of the crucial 2005 parliamentary election or not.

"The decision on that will come from the national commissar when the time is
ripe. The process has to be sanctioned by the party leadership, who will
receive the nominations from the provincial leadership before vetting the
candidates," he said.

There has been commotion in the last few months with some Zanu PF members
jostling to be endorsed by district and provincial leadership as candidates,
a move party insiders say has led to serious divisions at grassroots levels.

"In one constituency the district leadership is split on who to announce as
their choice with one group backing a junior party member while another
group is leaning towards the more senior member," said the party insider.

Zanu PF candidates who were defeated in the landmark 2000 elections are
making frantic efforts to be nominated to stand again for the party while
candidates who stood in urban areas are making the great trek to rural areas
where they see brighter chances than in towns.

The Zanu PF leadership in Nkayi refused to endorse Sithembiso Nyoni as the
candidate for the area after the governor and resident minister of
Matabeleland North, Obert Mpofu, who was travelling with her, failed to sell
her to the constituency.

Nyoni was attempting a parliamentary comeback through the rural areas after
the MDC's Thokozani Khuphe routed her in Makokoba in 2000.

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Zim Independent

Tsvangirai says Mugabe deceiving self
Munyaradzi Wasosa
OPPOSITION MDC president Morgan Tsvangirai has said President Robert Mugabe
is "deceiving himself" in telling the international community that Zimbabwe
has sufficient food supplies. Mugabe made the claim in a recent interview
with UK-based Sky News.

In a statement to mark Africa Day on Tuesday, Tsvangirai said Mugabe was
presenting himself as a reckless leader by asserting that Zimbabwe had
enough food and would not need any imports this year.

"Mugabe's misrepresentation of the (food) situation at home is a worrying
point," Tsvangirai said.

"To assume that Zimbabwe does not need food aid is simply to deceive
oneself. Mugabe was therefore reckless in suggesting that Zimbabwe does not
need to import any food, let alone appeal for donations."

Tsvangirai said according to his party's research on the country's food
situation, a grain deficit of at least 1,2 million tonnes is expected for
the 2003/2004 season.

"At the beginning of the current season, the early planted maize was a
failure and there were serious shortages of seed, fuel, fertiliser and other
inputs," Tsvangirai said.

"Our central estimate (therefore) is production of 600 000 tonnes of maize
plus 100 000 tonnes of sorghum. Excluding any strategic stocks, this would
imply a shortfall of 1,2 million tones," he said.

Agriculture minister Joseph Made said recently that Zimbabwe would have a
bumper harvest this season and estimated a grain yield of 2,4 million
tonnes. Mugabe repeated the same claims in his interview with Sky News
Africa correspondent Stuart Ramsay, who he invited to come and see for
himself the food situation after the harvest.

Tsvangirai said Mugabe was covering up for an unsuccessful land reform

"He (Mugabe) is trying to cover up for a failed land reform programme that
has reduced the entire commercial farmland to pieces of subsistence plots,"
Tsvangirai said.

Tsvangirai also berated the African Union (AU) for ignoring the Zimbabwe's
electoral crisis.

"As a continental body, the AU has shown little interest in the plight of
our people," Tsvangirai said.

"Flawed elections are a key source of Zimbabwe's problems.

"We humbly ask the AU to assist us in this regard in making sure that the
next election is held in accordance with Sadc norms and standards."

He said his party was considering petitioning the Southern African
Development Community to secure what he called a "legitimate result" over
the country's skewed electoral process.

Sadc electoral norms and standards stipulate, among other issues, the need
for an independent electoral commission, respect for the rule of law and
basic freedoms and rights, public confidence in the electoral process, and
the secrecy of the ballot.

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Zim Independent

Zanu PF in anti-white campaign
Munyaradzi Wasosa/Augustine Mukaro
TENSION has gripped Manicaland province as Zanu PF supporters have launched
an "All Whites Out By 2005" campaign through violent invasions of
white-owned properties and staging of anti-white demonstrations, the
Zimbabwe Independent heard this week.

The campaign has already resulted in the loss of one life.

Former Kondozi farm outgrower, Peter Spiro-Landos, allegedly shot dead one
of the Zanu PF supporters resettled on his farm. Mike Mufambi was shot on
Monday evening when a 30-member mob attacked Spiro-Landos at his Riverside
Farm homestead.

Spiro-Landos (48), a farmer of Greek descent, was seriously wounded in the
attack before being detained by police in hospital in Mutare.

Justice for Agriculture (JAG) vice-chairman John Worsley-Worswick said
Spiro-Landos had been asking police to disperse a mob of ruling Zanu PF
supporters from his farm in the Odzi district for a week before the attack.

"On Monday evening a mob came to his farm gate and Spiro-Landos went out to
talk to them," Worsley-Worswick said. "The mob pinned him down and in the
scuffle, he drew a gun and fired a warning shot in the air. But one man was
hit and died.

"When Spiro-Landos failed to return to his homestead after dark, his wife
alerted his brother in Mutare town who promptly responded to the SOS call.
Spiro-Landos was later found near the farm gate, semi-conscious and bleeding
from head wounds," he said.

Police spokesman Superintendent Oliver Mandipaka confirmed the shooting.
"Spiro-Landos committed murder against a black resettled farmer, that is the
position," Mandipaka said.

"We are detaining him at Mutare Central police station. We are definitely
charging him for murder and attempted murder," he said. Mandipaka however
dismissed reports of the wave of fresh farm invasions claiming that the
situation was peaceful.

Worsley-Worswick told the Independent that a fresh wave of farm invasions
had swept across the province. "For the past four years Manicaland was the
least affected in terms of farm invasions but has become the prime target of
fresh invasions by ruling party supporters ostensibly in retaliation for
Chimanimani MP Roy Bennett's action in parliament," he said.

"The flavour of the attacks are very racist and for the first time, the
invaders are demanding that white farmers leave Zimbabwe," Worsley-Worswick

The Independent can reveal that at least 10 farms have been invaded since
last week.

Worsley-Worswick said a dozen violent war veterans and other Zanu PF
supporters invaded Madinare farm in Chipinge last Thursday. The 120-hectare
farm, owned by Carolyn Cutter, grows coffee and macademia nuts for export.

"On Thursday morning 12 war veterans invaded the farm, broke the fence
surrounding the farm house and smashed a lot of doors including the one to
her bedroom."

Other invaded farms over the past week include Hosstede Farm and two others
in Chipinge.

Elsewhere, Mpofu River Farm and Nyahowa Farm, both in the Karoi area,
another in Tengwe, Mana Pools camp and Masapas Ranch in Chiredzi have also
seen occupations.
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Zim Independent

Mugabe's Sky News act fails to impress
Dumisani Muleya
AN overwhelming majority of Sky News viewers and online readers say
President Robert Mugabe's interview with the British television station this
week was "unconvincing".

Sky News poll results on the interview broadcast worldwide showed most
people did not think Mugabe's claims on the situation in Zimbabwe were
serious or convincing.

Mugabe was interviewed on the broad political and economic situation in the
country. He largely denied there were problems related to elections, the
political situation, food or the economy.

But at least 86% of the people polled by Sky News by yesterday said Mugabe
was "unconvincing", while 13% said he was convincing. The global poll has
been running since the interview was aired on Monday and ends tomorrow.

However, Information minister Jonathan Moyo yesterday claimed the poll was a
"false survey".

Mugabe was criticised at home and abroad for remarks made in the interview.
Opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) leader Morgan Tsvangirai
said Mugabe's interview was "a shocking tale of misrepresentations and

Tsvangirai said Mugabe gave "a brilliant fictional account" of what is going
on in the country. He said the interview proved Mugabe was detached from the
country's realities.

"The whole interview was a tale of blatant misrepresentations and wildly
variable distortions of the situation in Zimbabwe," Tsvangirai said.

"He misrepresented everything from elections, food, political violence, the
economic crisis, and his party's youth militia, to his mansion."

Britain's Conservative Party deputy leader and shadow foreign secretary
Michael Ancram said the interview showed that Mugabe was either living on a
different planet or was just a "pathological liar".

Tsvangirai said the interview was only useful insofar as it showed the world
that Mugabe was "intolerant, belligerent and anachronistic".

In the interview, Mugabe repeated his angry criticism of British Prime Tony
Blair whom he claimed had done "mad things" which have plunged the world
into turmoil.

He also blamed Blair for isolating him from his erstwhile ally, Libyan ruler
Muammar Gaddafi.

Mugabe claimed Zimbabwe had enough food supplies and that the World Food
Programme was trying to foist food on the country.

He said his violent seizure of land from "ill-educated" white farmers was
"going to reinvigorate the economy".

In a series of denials, Mugabe also denied that he stole 2002's disputed
presidential election. He denied there was widespread political violence and
that the national youth training programme was creating violent militias.

Mugabe attacked South African retired Archbishop Desmond Tutu, saying he was
"an angry, evil and embittered little bishop". Tutu has criticised Mugabe
for political repression and human rights abuses.

Tsvangirai said it was "shameful" for Mugabe to try to denounce the Nobel
peace laureate for speaking out on human rights violations.

"It was shameful and unfortunate for Mugabe to try to take a dim view of a
man who commands worldwide respect like Tutu," he said. "Whatever he says he
can't obliterate Tutu's place in history and the respect all progressive
people have for him."

Political analyst Professor Brian Raftopoulos said Mugabe's interview was
shallow and replete with sweeping generalisations.

"I don't think the president gave a comprehensive explanation of issues. He
was defensive and reacted with broad generalisations," he said. "He simply
denied any problems existed and tried to gloss over the issues."

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Zim Independent

Sweden invites Zim scribes
Itai Dzamara
IN what is seen as a move to counter state claims that Zimbabwe's media laws
are modelled on Swedish regulations, the Swedish embassy in Harare has
organised a study tour for journalists to the Scandinavian nation.

Supporters of Zimbabwe's repressive Access to Information and Protection of
Privacy Act (Aippa), including MIC chair Tafataona Mahoso and Information
minister Jonathan Moyo, have claimed it was no different to Sweden's media
laws. The silence of the Swedish embassy could have lent credence to these

However, Zimbabwean journalists from both the government and privately-owned
media will have a chance to make the comparison during the week-long study
tour of Sweden.

In a letter addressed to the selected journalists, Swedish ambassador to
Zimbabwe, Kristina Svensson, said the trip would "provide a general
understanding of Swedish society and culture, and specifically Swedish laws
on freedom of speech and access to information".

Svensson said that she hoped the trip would inspire discussions on issues
relating to freedom of expression and the role of the media, as well as
encourage networks between journalists working in Zimbabwe and their
counterparts in Sweden.

Analysts see this as Sweden's attempt to rebut the state propaganda. Sweden
is considered to have a strong culture of freedom of expression.

Andrew Moyse of the Media Monitoring Project Zimbabwe (MMPZ) said it was
disheartening for countries such as Sweden to remain silent when they were
subjected to such claims. "We hope that this trip will go a long way in
explaining how repressive the media legislation in this country is," said
Moyse. "Comparisons with the reality in Sweden will dispel the myth
propagated by those who created Aippa."

Mahoso on Wednesday denied ever claiming that Aippa was modelled on Swedish
laws. He however said Swedish media regulations were stricter than Aippa.

"We have never said that Aippa was modelled on Swedish media laws. No, we
have never said that," he said. "What we have said is that Swedish laws are
even more strict than what we have here."

Journalists' associations will also send representatives on the one-week

The programme will include meetings with a number of institutions and

These include a visit to major media outlets - newspapers, television and
radio stations, the office of the Press Ombudsman, the Press Council,
Swedish Union of Journalists, Swedish Parliament, Ministries of Justice and
Foreign Affairs, Office of the Chancellor of Justice and the University
College of Journalism, among others.

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Zim Independent

Farm grabbed for ex-mayor's son
Munyaradzi Wasosa
ZANU PF activists who two weeks ago occupied fertiliser manufacturer Sable
Chemical Industries (Pvt) Ltd's Sebakwe Farm did so to facilitate its
takeover by Berrington Mangwiro Mawere, the Zimbabwe Independent has been

Berrington Mawere is the son of former Kwekwe mayor, Johnson Mawere.

A Sable Chemical Industries spokesperson in Kwekwe who preferred anonymity
told this paper last week that Mawere was using his son to get the farm.

"It's true that the farm was invaded last week (two weeks ago) by people
suspected to be ruling party supporters," the spokesperson said.

"The farm is being taken over by Johnson Mawere, the former mayor of Kwekwe,
and his son Berrington Mangwiro Mawere who claims to have been allocated the

Investigations by the Zimbabwe Independent revealed that Johnson Mawere
already has an A2 farm in the Battlefield area between Kadoma and Kwekwe.

Mawere was one of the first beneficiaries of government's controversial land
reform programme.

It is understood the farm was invaded ostensibly to punish Sable for
exporting fertiliser and starving the local market.

The spokesperson refuted the allegations by the invaders.

"Sable hardly exports fertiliser except under a special permit by the
government," the spokesperson said. "The production capacity of AN
fertiliser is 250 000 tonnes annually, largely for domestic use."

The company distributes fertiliser locally through Windmill and Zimbabwe
Fertiliser Company.

The farm produces mainly wheat, maize barley and paprika.

Sources told this paper that management was given 24 hours to remove all
farm equipment such as pumps for water to the electrolysis plant which
processes fertiliser.

The company also produces gaseous oxygen which is critically essential for
Ziscosteel and Zimasco for use in steel and ferrochrome manufacturing

The spokesperson said the occupations threatened the operations of the
company's fertiliser manufacturing plant.

"Stopping the operation of the pump house threatens the closure of Sable as
well as Zisco and Zimasco," the spokesperson said.

Sable, the country's sole manufacturer of ammonium nitrate, employs at least
30 workers on the farm whose future is already in doubt.

The spokesperson told the Independent that the company did not get any
notification from the government about the acquisition of the farm.

Efforts to interview Minister of Agriculture Joseph Made were fruitless. He
kept switching off his cellphone. Mawere could also not be reached for

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Zim Independent

Airzim workers fume over pension contributions
Munyaradzi Wasosa
AIR Zimbabwe workers have accused the airline's pension fund trustees of not
remitting their pension contributions and using $400 million withdrawn from
the scheme for fuel purchases, the Zimbabwe Independent has been told.

According to a report made by Air Zimbabwe's three workers' unions to the
police, the board has not remitted pension money since September 2003.

"The board of trustees were not submitting pension money deducted from
employees' salaries as from September 2003 to date," the report said.

"Also of concern is $400 million that Comarton Consultants (Pvt) Ltd reveals
was de-invested (by the board)."

It is understood the amount was used to purchase fuel.

Comarton Consultants, an asset management company that handles the airline's
pension fund, held a meeting with Airzim management and workers'
representatives in March to iron out their differences.

Airzim's former managing director, Rambai Chingwena, who has since left the
country, last month faxed a letter of resignation claiming he was in
Namibia. Chingwena was chairman of the board of trustees.

Tendai Mujuru is the acting managing director. She also sits on the board of
trustees as an employer-appointed nominee.

In 2002, the pension fund, which was transferred from Old Mutual to Comarton
Consultants, was worth more than $300 million.

The board told workers' representatives that the pension fund received 913
000 shares from Old Mutual when the insurance firm demutualised.

At the meeting, Comarton announced that it invested $1,2 billion with Old
Mutual Asset Mangers, $1,1 billion in a company only known as GP2, and $950
million with Datvest Pension Management (Pvt) Ltd.

It was revealed in the meeting that Chingwena withdrew $400 million from

When the workers quizzed mana-gement why the money was with-drawn, Mujuru
said it was withdrawn for the purchase of fuel. Air Zimbabwe buys Jet A1 fue
l from BP and Shell.

Comarton, represented by Doreen Mupfumira, produced three notification
letters demanding to know why the airline was not remitting contributions.

One worker who attended the meeting said Mujuru refused to answer
Mupfumira's question.

"Mujuru totally refused to answer, while Chingwena refused to attend the
meeting saying it was a kangaroo court," the worker said.

The airline employs about 1 183 workers, some having monthly pension
deductions of up to $70 000.

The airline's legal and corporate affairs manager, Arthur Manase, confirmed
Chingwena's resignation but said it was a personal decision.

"To the best of our knowledge, the decision by Chingwena to resign was
purely personal," Manase said.

He said Chingwena was not under any police investigation and refused to
reveal his whereabouts.

In March workers at the ailing parastatal threatened to down tools over the
non-remittance of their pension fund contributions.

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Zim Independent

Game rancher assaulted
Munyaradzi Wasosa
SUSPECTED war veterans brutally assaulted the farm manager of Masapas Game
Ranch in the Save Valley Conservancy last Friday, the Zimbabwe Independent
has been told.

Police in Triangle have since arrested 33 people in connection with the
attack on Anthony Bodington and six game scouts on Masapas Ranch.

Triangle police confirmed the arrests but referred all questions to the
officer-in-charge of Mkwasine police, Inspector Charles Munhungeyi.

Efforts to contact Munhungeyi were fruitless. He was said to be attending a
soccer match in Chiredzi.

The Independent understands the attack was carried out by a group of war
veterans, poachers and people illegally occupying part of the ranch.

A reliable source said the incident happened while Bodington and his team
were patrolling the ranch.

"Bodington and the scouts were on a routine joint anti-poaching patrol with
workers from Humani and Senuko game ranches when the assailants fell upon
them," the source said.

The farm is owned by Lowveld game rancher, Peter Henning.

One game scout was allegedly stabbed by one of the assailants after they
were abducted and held overnight in the bush.

The Independent understands that a man only identified as Chirapa, who led
the group, is under investigation for an assault allegedly committed against
one of the ranch's managers in 2002.

The assailants were said to be armed with knobkerries, assegais and

A ZRP Support Unit team rescued the abductees in the early hours of Saturday

The assault victims, who sustained severe injuries and lacerations all over
their bodies, were taken to Triangle hospital for treatment.

One senior nurse at the hospital who preferred not to be named confirmed
that Bodington sustained serious injuries.

"Mr Bodington came in on Saturday and we treated him for severe injuries he
had all over his body as a result of the beating," the nurse said.
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Zim Independent

Rights groups mull protests over electoral law changes
Gift Phiri
CIVIL rights groups plan to stage a protest in Harare against proposed
amendments to the Electoral Act which would deny many Zimbabweans the right
to vote in the forthcoming general election.

NGOs, civic organisations and human rights bodies believe the draconian
amendments proposed by President Robert Mugabe's government will curtail the
voting rights of poor urban dwellers - who are the opposition party's main
supporters - in next year's parliamentary election due to be held in March.

"The demonstration will show the revulsion of the people of Zimbabwe for
what we see as a great fraud," said Douglas Mwonzora, spokesman for the
National Constitutional Assembly (NCA), a broad-based coalition of civic,
religious and opposition groups.

Under proposals contained in the Electoral Amendment Bill to be tabled in
parliament soon, urban dwellers will be required to produce proof of
residence. Without the proof, expected to come in the form of a receipt or
demand for payment rates in terms of the Urban Councils Act, they would have
to produce a sworn statement from their employer confirming their place of
residence or bring documents such as bank statements or hospital bills.

In rural areas, voters would be required to bring sworn oral or written
statements from their chiefs, who are now part and parcel of Zanu PF's
electoral machinery.

Section 116A of the Bill criminalises placing bills, placards, circulars or
any other document and writing or painting with the object of supporting or
opposing any political party, political cause or candidate. The offence
carries a maximum jail term of six months.

According to an article by the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA)
published on Tuesday, the amendments would designate the under-funded
Electoral Supervisory Commission (ESC) as the only body to conduct civic
education and would ban foreign funding unless directed to the ESC. Civil
society organisations would therefore be prohibited from providing civic

EISA also noted that the amendments would mean that only civil servants
would be permitted to observe the elections. But after more than two decades
of Zanu PF rule, the civil service is widely regarded as a partisan
institution. The NCA and its supporters plan to gather outside parliament on
the day the Bill is supposed to be tabled.

"This motion must not be entertained at all," Mwonzora said. The amendments
to the Act stipulate that voters need to provide title deeds, certificates
of occupation or lodgers' cards as proof of residence before they can
register to vote. But many city dwellers do not own properties and live in
illegal, makeshift structures in the city's working class suburbs.

Despite promises over the years since Independence, the Zanu PF government
has not been able to provide accommodation and most major cities in the
country have long lists of people in need of housing.

Village heads and traditional leaders will have to vouch for voters who live
in rural areas. Reginald Matchaba-Hove, chairman of the Zimbabwe Election
Support Network (Zesn), a civic organisation, told the Zimbabwe Independent
that the new regulations were a worrying development.

"We are really worried about these changes and measures which don't seem to
abide by the constitution," he said. Zesn also questioned the government's
decision to introduce the new regulations ahead of parliamentary elections.

"We should always be aware that flawed electoral processes are often a
source of conflict," warned Matchaba-Hove.

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Zim Independent

      Mangwende usurps powers of mayor, councillors

      Itai Dzamara/Augustine Mukaro

      GOVERNMENT has assumed total control of the Harare City Council
through Harare Metropolitan governor Witness Mangwende who is presiding over
all policy matters at Town House.

      Analysts this week said in the same manner Local Government minister
Ignatius Chombo usurped the powers of both the mayor and councillors, the
appointment of Mangwende was an obvious ploy to render the MDC-dominated
council ineffective.

      Mangwende, whose political career has not been marked by conspicuous
achievement, is one of the ruling party's longest-serving members. President
Mugabe appointed him as governor of Harare in March this year in a move
which could revive the politician's flagging career. The appointment is seen
as more political than driven by a desire to find a solution to the mounting
problems at Town House.

      Analysts this week blamed government's continued interference in
council affairs as hampering progress on a wide range of policy matters.

      Highly-placed sources at Town House revealed that the latest strike by
council workers over lack of protective clothing was being referred to
Mangwende as acting mayor Sekesayi Makwavarara seems to have her hands tied.
The delay in finalising the city's budget, which has impacted negatively on
all aspects of the council, is also being referred to Mangwende by council

      Council sources said the simmering confusion over the Harare budget
has been worsened by the encroachment of Mangwende.

      "We heard from the acting mayor in a recent meeting that the issue is
being handled by Chombo and Mangwende and that she (Makwavarara) was waiting
for their feedback," a source said.

      "All council policy matters are now being referred to Mangwende's
office," the source said.

      "How do you expect progress when council is barred from holding
meetings for six months?"

      Chombo and Mangwende took turns to block council meetings intended to
map the way forward.

      MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai at one point mooted withdrawing his party
's councillors if they were not serving their purpose because of government

      Councillors who spoke to the Zimbabwe Independent said the appointment
of Mangwende was government's strategy to render the council useless.

      "The Urban Councils Act has no provision of a governor for Harare,"
Councillor Last Maengahama said.

      "To make matters worse all the issues Mangwende is involving himself
in are administrative and not policy.

      "What was the motive behind his announcement that the water issues
would be handled from the governor's office or when he said he would play a
pivotal role in the recruitment of employees?" Maengahama asked.

      The end result of the announcement was the recruitment of Zanu PF
militia members into strategic positions. Last month Mangwende was reported
to have recruited 40 national youth training service graduates in various
council departments.

      He is now reportedly determining dates and times when council should
hold their meetings.

      Last week Mangwende announced through the state broadcaster the
cancellation of a full council meeting intended to vote in a new deputy
mayor. The move was viewed as a deliberate ploy to protect Makwavarara who
was on the verge of being ousted. Councillors ended up taking Mangwende to
court seeking to restore their rights to hold meetings as and when they

      Councillors said they felt Mangwende was brought in to fill gaps that
were left by Chombo in destroying the MDC-led council's credibility in the
eyes of the urban electorate. "Mangwende is interfering with council
activities from the grassroots level such as wards and districts where
Chombo's influence was not reaching," one councillor said.

      "The governor has already started moving in on wards, taking charge of
vendors, food for work, control of bus ranks and clean-up campaigns without
informing the councillors. Soldiers invaded our wards in clean-up campaigns
with the instruction of the governor's office, rendering ward-based groups
led by councillors useless."

      Councillors also said the governor was understood to be quietly taking
over the allocation of residential stands on peri-urban properties with the
council required to service the stands.

      Mangwende's mission is to lure the urban electorate to the ruling
party in next year's election, councillors said.

      The councillors however said the struggle in Harare should not be
viewed in isolation from the need for democratisation of Zimbabwe as a

      Officials at Town House said Makwavarara and town clerk Nomutsa
Chideya were under instructions from Chombo to refer all matters on Harare
affairs to Mangwende's office.

      Chideya last week said he was "too young" to discuss Mangwende's role
in Harare

      "My friend I am too young to discuss these matters," he said. "These
issues you can only discuss with the Minister of Local Government. All I
know is that the governor is doing his things probably according to his
mandate. You need to ask him."

      Efforts to contact Chombo were in vain but Mangwende last week refused
to discuss the matter claiming that he didn't know about the existence of
the Independent.

      "I don't talk to you. Who owns your paper which I didn't know
 existed?" he asked. "That (Trevor) Ncube must write stories in South Africa
where you say he is now based. I don't want to talk to you and in fact we
will kick you away because you go about writing useless things. Talk to my
personal assistant."

      Mangwende's personal assistant, Bernard Chahuruka, last week invited
this paper to the inauguration of Mangwende as Harare governor at which he
said the powers and responsibilities of Mangwende would be defined.

      In his address at Mangwende's inauguration last Saturday, Chombo did
not in fact define the governor's role. He merely stressed what he said was
the need to restore the sunshine city status previously bestowed on Harare.

      "We see the office of the provincial governor as pivotal in the
prioritisation, planning and implementation of developmental processes for
the province. The housing problem will be solved and currently we are
facilitating the removal of squatters from Porta Farm so that we resettle
them properly," said Chombo.

      Mangwende is no stranger to high office having presided over various
portfolios since Independence in 1980. He has served in the ministries of
Foreign Affairs, Information, Transport and Communications as well as the
department in the President's Office responsible for war veterans.

      Despite producing little in terms of results in his other posts, he
now appears ready to do combat with the MDC. His appointment as Harare
governor effectively ends his long hibernation in Zanu PF's political
Siberia. Whether he performs any better in this job than he has in the rest
remains to be seen.

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Zim Independent

Eric Bloch Column

Critical need for a social contract

FOR at least five years there has been discussion in Zimbabwe, on an
intermittent and spasmodic basis, that a social contract must be concluded
as a key element of measures to achieve economic recovery and growth.

That a social contract be negotiated and agreed upon, and then implemented,
has been a recommendation of numerous economists, of representative bodies
of most economic sectors, of major organisations such as the International
Monetary Fund and many others.

Even the government of Zimbabwe, which usually suffers from the "not
invented here" disease which motivates rejection unilaterally of the ideas
of others, has on several occasions advocated a social contract and, to that
end, brought the Tripartite Negotiating Forum (TNF) into being.

Oft-asked questions are: "What is a social contract?" and "Why do we need a
social contract?"

Essentially, a social contract is one wherein the government, labour and the
private sector agree on a total, or near total, freeze on taxes and all
other governmental charges, wages and salaries and prices. The contract
endures for a period of time while appropriate remedial actions are
implemented to restore economic wellbeing.

The freeze ensures that rising costs and imports should not be the catalyst
of further inflation. Usually, when the negotiating parties enter into a
social contract, they agree that the only permissible increases during the
continuance of the contract are to the extent that circumstances and prices
beyond the country's borders impact upon the economy as, for example, the
recent upsurge in world oil prices.

As a general rule, the only perceived alternative to a social contract as
can address pronounced inflation, or hyperinflation, is for
government-imposed price controls. But although organisations such as the
Consumer Council of Zimbabwe recurrently call for a reintroduction in
Zimbabwe of price controls, doing so will not contain inflation without very
severely damaging the already gravely distressed economy yet further, while
at the same time expected benefits for the consumer do not materialise.

Whensoever Zimbabwe has resorted to price controls, intensified inflation
has arisen. That this should be so is difficult to comprehend for, if prices
remain constant, how can inflation be sustained?

The answer lies very simply in the fact that invariably commerce and
industry cannot meet all operating costs and service borrowings if their
selling prices remain fixed. This is so because, unless a social contract
exists, salaries and wages continue to rise, although possibly to a lesser
extent than if price controls did not exist, in order to keep pace with
inflation, even if that inflation is slowed down.

It is also so because there is generally continuing movement in foreign
currency exchange rates, impacting upon the costs of imports.

As a result, many manufacturers have to discontinue production of those
commodities as, in consequence of price controls, can only be sold at a
loss. Similarly, many of those in commerce, be they wholesalers or
retailers, have to discontinue selling products if the permitted prices only
yield losses.

These circumstances result in pronounced shortages, and those shortages
create opportunities for black marketeers. They exploit consumer desperation
to access goods in demand but in short supply by making those goods
available at greatly inflated prices.

That causes yet further inflation. Thus, the consumer suffers from
non-availability of essential or desired products, or from continuing

However, if a social contract exists, such a situation does not occur. As
the manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer does not sustain increases in
operating costs, all of which are frozen unless they are imported, he has no
need to increase his prices.

Similarly, the stability within the private sector which emanates from
implementation of the social contract should enable spending stability in
the public sector, which in turn enables the government to have a freeze on
the rates applicable to its taxes and charges for services.

If all prices remain constant, and no greater amounts are payable to the
government, labour can afford not to receive increments for an agreed period
of time, although the consequence is that labour cannot enjoy any
improvement in living standards during that period, save in instances where
labour's income is increased through promotion to higher-paid job functions.

But succeeding in reaching agreement of a social contract is only possible
if all parties negotiate in utmost good faith. There has to be genuine
dialogue between the participants in the negotiations.

Those negotiations have to be conducted with absolute transparency and with
a real intent of all to arrive at a workable, constructive agreement. That
agreement has to include a fixed period of time, whereafter there must be
review and, if necessary, modification.

The agreement must be explicit as to the nature and extent of the freezes of
prices, wages, salaries, taxes and governmental service charges. It must be
precise as to when any increases during the agreed period may be effected,
the circumstances as must prevail to enable such increases to be effected,
and the basis of determining the amounts of the increases. It must also
prescribe the extent, if any, of reciprocal increases as may then be
implemented by the other parties.

To create an environment which would make it possible for agreement to be
reached, the negotiations must be devoid of political considerations.
Irrespective of whether it is the government, labour or other elements of
the private sector, if a genuine desire exists to conclude a social
contract, all political considerations must be put aside.

The negotiations must be driven exclusively by a mutuality of intent that
inflation be brought firmly under control, that the continuing decline of
the economy be halted, and that instead the economy be set upon a steady
path of restoration, followed by growth.

Ideally, all sessions of the negotiations should be chaired by a wholly
independent, but suitably knowledgeable person who is totally detached from
Zimbabwean politics, from Zimbabwean trade union issues and conflicts and
from Zimbabwe's private sector vested interests.

That chairman must also be able to instil in the negotiating parties a sense
of great urgency, and a realisation of the magnitude of the responsibility
of each of them to bring the negotiations to a successful conclusion, in the
best interests of the Zimbabwean populace, present and future.

In view of the government being the party to the negotiations that, first
and foremost, is responsible for Zimbabwean wellbeing, an essential element
of which is a sound, stable and growing economy, it must set the example,
even before the negotiations are completed. In doing so, it would
demonstrate its good faith which, heretofore, has been doubted by the other
parties and by a great number of Zimbabweans. It would be establishing
examples to be followed by the others.

Thus, for example, it should establish policy consistency. How can it
justify sourcing of its foreign currency requirements by persisting in
demanding of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe that it force exporters to
surrender 25% of export earnings at a spurious, grossly sub-economic
exchange rate of $824 to US$1, while at the same time it exacts customs
duties and value-added tax from importers at the weighted average auction
exchange rate, which is six times the rate at which it sources its currency.
Clearly that which is sauce for the goose is not sauce for the gander!

Similarly, to cite a second example, how does the government conceivably
justify increases in charges by the Registrar of Companies for the
incorporation of companies and for the registration of mandatory company
returns when the magnitude of the increases generally ranges from 1 000% to
2 000%?

In other words, the increases are far beyond actual inflation, and are
totally unrelated to the costs of providing the Registrar of Companies'
services. Moreover, the increases are of such a magnitude as to create a
major hurdle to the creation of new enterprises, which is key to economic
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Zim Independent

Millions more now see the real picture

COMMENTS carried in the official media yesterday denouncing Sky News for
putting questions to President Mugabe that were "either very crude or very
stupid" expose significant tensions in policy-making at the very apex of the
ruling party.

Jonathan Moyo's remarks, carried in the Herald, reveal a seething resentment
of those who facilitated the interview. "Told you so," seems to be the
message to those who believed this would be a useful platform. Clearly, Moyo
does not regard the interview as a resounding success.

So who set it up? Sky News has privately acknowledged that Ugandan
researcher David Nyekorach-Matsanga facilitated the Sky News crew's initial
trip which focused on the youth training camps and land reform. But the
network's website makes it clear that the ruling party itself was keen to
have Mugabe interviewed because it was felt he could effectively rebut some
of the charges about his leadership and Zimbabwe's current predicament.

The ruling party's secretary for information and publicity Dr Nathan
Shamuyarira has been linked in media reports to this initiative. But the
Department of Information officiously sought to involve itself by laying
down the law of accreditation. The Sky News crew entered the country
"illegally", we are told, at the end of April "before securing accreditation
and despite advice from the Department of Information and Publicity".

The department had "strongly objected to the arrival of the crew before
agreement on the proposed documentary project featuring the president".

So it would be fair to conclude from this that the Sky News crew had a
sponsor who was more influential than the department's presidential
gate-keepers. Despite the department's attempts to block an interview with
the president until the team had applied from London, Sky's home base,
permission was quickly forthcoming without the ground rules some of Mugabe's
mandarins were apparently seeking to impose. These included a co-production
with Newsnet, one of the state's propaganda outlets.

There seems to have been an expectation that the exercise was aimed at
"countering the negative publicity the country has been receiving",
according to state media reports.

But it was unlikely from the outset that Sky would lend itself to a project
aimed at whitewashing a terminally-tainted regime. In the event the
interview went ahead and Mugabe was asked the sort of questions that any
self-respecting reporter would put to him on governance, food production,
torture and retirement.

But significantly, it was a question on the succession issue which seems to
have stung Moyo the most. The interviewer, Stuart Ramsay, cited Moyo as his
source in asking Mugabe about the succession issue causing ructions within
the ruling party. Moyo said he had never spoken to Sky or anyone about the
succession issue.

"It is a total fabrication typical of British intelligence operatives who
masquerade as journalists," Moyo said.

Is it seriously suggested that the president knowingly gave an interview to
British intelligence officers? If so, he was evidently impervious to Moyo's

Moyo cites as his ideal of a presidential interview the vacuous exchange
with Newsnet in February when Mugabe emerged unmolested by a single
challenging question. This "travelled instantly", we are told, although it
is not clear where.

The Department of Information has recently been engaged in energetic efforts
to establish a regional network of state propaganda instruments that will
exchange suitably panel-beaten reports on how well their respective
governments are doing. This attempt to revive the discredited New World
Information Order is likely to meet the same fate. There is no longer in the
age of the Internet a market for dissembling state-generated claims that the
public can easily see through. New Ziana and Newsnet are already suffering
from a credibility crisis as nobody takes their reports seriously.

Moyo's invective against the Sky News team is understandable. While Mugabe
may be used to answering "stupid questions", he did not appear so effective
in dealing with the latest batch.

But what this episode tells us is that there are significant differences of
opinion in the upper echelons of the ruling party over how to counter what
the regime sees as a media campaign against it. This in turn is linked to
jockeying for advantage as the succession issue assumes growing importance.

If Mugabe agrees to do no further interviews with what Moyo calls "colonial
mouthpieces" like Sky, CNN and the BBC, believing the new networks the
Information department has created will have an Al Jezeera effect, then the
likely outcome will be further isolation.

The comparison with Al Jezeera is simply laughable given the clumsiness of
Zimbabwe's propaganda machine and the ineptitude of its handlers. Newsnet is
no Al Jezeera. And no amount of regional bartering of information is going
to disguise Zimbabwe's "real story" which Zimbabweans themselves are only
too familiar with. Thanks to Sky News, millions more around the world now
see the real picture: a leadership in denial about food shortages and
brutality, bereft of ideas and capable only of lashing out against its

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Zim Independent


Suckers, parrots & Zanu PF 'bravery'

IT is remarkable how deceitful propaganda feeds on itself. From the
suggestion that Zimbabwe can expect a bumper harvest, we have now moved to
the claim that the country has already reaped a bumper harvest.

Monday's Herald told us Zimbabweans had something to celebrate on Africa

"After all, the rainy season has been good and there has been a bumper

So, it's no longer wishful thinking, it's a fact!

And we now have the first diplomat to fall for this phoney forecast. India's
new ambassador to Harare, Ajit Kumar, told journalists after his meeting
with Vice-President Joseph Msika that India was happy that "this year
Zimbabwe was going to have a bumper harvest".

Now we understand the importance of being diplomatic. But swallowing hook,
line and sinker the mendacious claims of the regime when every single
analyst - including UN agencies - has expressed scepticism about those
claims is foolhardy indeed.

Let's hope Mr Kumar is able to explain himself when the famine figures start
coming in. To date India's "support" for Zimbabwe's land reform programme
has involved supplying rice to supplement falling maize production!

We appreciate that caged parrots such as Caesar Zvayi and Lowani Ndlovu are
obliged to squawk on behalf of their masters. But it would be helpful that
when doing so they could make an attempt to get elementary facts right.

Ndlovu for instance appears to think South Africa was first colonised in
1852. And he expects us to support him in this falsehood.

The Zimbabwe Independent, among other "running dogs of the apartheid press",
would have you believe, he claimed on Sunday, "the absolute colonial rubbish
that South Africa has been independent since 1852".

We don't recall having mentioned this at any point. But if we had, we would
be unlikely to have got the date wrong by 200 years!

As any "O" Level student could tell Ndlovu, South Africa was first colonised
by the Dutch in 1652. The Sunday Mail columnist managed to get the date
wrong five times in his article without a single editorial intervention!

But Ndlovu is not alone in his ignorance. On April 25, Tafataona Mahoso told
us South Africa was in 1948 a "self-governed (sic) British colony".

This liberty with the facts enabled him to proceed to claim that Britain, as
a signatory of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, "would not have
allowed its star colony, South Africa, to proclaim apartheid at exactly the
same time as the promulgation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
if that document had been about human rights and if it had been truly

That would be a plausible argument if South Africa had indeed been a British
colony in 1948. But in fact it had succeeded from colonial status to
dominion status in 1910 and under the terms of the Statute of Westminster in
1931 had become a fully sovereign state. As was the case with Australia,
Canada, New Zealand, India, Pakistan and Ceylon in 1948, Britain could not
intervene in its internal affairs.

No doubt, in the spirit of Third Chimurenga generalisation which last week
saw Nathaniel Manheru contemptuously dismissing the  publication of phoney
pictures as inconsequential to his wider claims about the British and
Americans in Iraq, Mahoso would argue that this is all a quibble; that the
Afrikaner Nationalist government of DF Malan, which was bitterly
anti-British, was in reality a British colonial front.

But as no South African historian has yet advanced such an imaginative
theory, we should not entertain Mahoso's!

It does at least usefully illustrate how those responsible for policing the
media are able to get away with significant distortions of the record for
the sake of their threadbare arguments.

Still with Mahoso's distortions, we should note that Chengetai Zvauya, Andy
Moyse and Clive Wilson were acquitted in the High Court last week. The three
were charged with criminal defamation after the Standard in 2000 carried a
story claiming the constitutional commission printed its report before
consultations were completed. We recall Patrick Chinamasa inviting others to
feed at the state's trough - ie join in the lawsuit. Jonathan Moyo testified
against them, claiming his credibility as the commission's spokesman was at

Mahoso predetermined their fate by regarding the trio as convicted when in
fact their appeal had suspended their convictions. He was asked last year in
court at the Daily News hearing if he was aware that the case was under
appeal. He said he wasn't.

Is he now aware the three were acquitted last week? Or is he still not
paying attention to inconvenient facts?

Muckraker roared with laughter on Saturday when he saw the coward Manheru
telling Roy Bennett he was lucky that "I, Nathaniel, the son of Manheru",
was not in parliament on the day of the fracas with Patrick Chinamasa.

"As we say in Shona, he would have seen it."

Seen what Nathaniel? You and whose army? Because like all Zanu PF cowards
you would never act unless you had the instruments of state power backing
you up. We know all about your kind of bravery. We have seen it in Joseph
Mwale's exploits. We have seen it in the workers dumped on the roadside in

We have seen it in the vicious abuse of decent principled men such as
Desmond Tutu and Pius Ncube who cannot reply to your facile insults - or
"insulations" as you ineptly wrote last week. We have seen it in the blatant
lies peddled every week in your semi-literate column over which your supine
editors appear to have no jurisdiction.

We have on record your threat that "Bennett's jaws and all should just have
been broken in swift and overwhelming vengeance". That you believe in
violence is not in doubt. But should the Minister of Justice accept the
protection of one so brave that he could not even admit his authorship of
the column from which he waves his fists?

It was instructive to read Witness Mangwende's remarks made outside
parliament last Thursday to stir up the hired mob that was trucked in to exp
ress their wrath over the assault on Chinamasa. Mangwende, and Mike Madiro
in Mutare, were strident in telling Roy Bennett where he could not set foot
again. All sorts of threats were made against Bennett by these fiery
zealots. Even William Nhara was photographed waving his fists around.

What have these three got in common?

They are losers. Mangwende's career has been in steady decline since the
heady days when he was Foreign minister in the early 1980s. We all recall
the incident with Jimmy Carter! Since then he has fetched up at the
department dealing with war veterans where even the kindest observer would
be hard-put to use the word "success".

Now he has been rescued from obscurity by President Mugabe and put in charge
of Harare. Apart from subverting democratic governance in the capital, he
clearly thinks the job description involves hurling abuse at MPs who, unlike
him, were actually elected to parliament.

Mike Madiro lost the 2000 contest for Mutare South. William Nhara lost a
by-election bid for Harare Central last year. Yet they have the cheek to
tell Bennett where he can and cannot go!

Nothing more clearly illustrates the intolerant and anti-democratic
character of the ruling party than these popularly rejected demagogues
attempting to forbid the access of an elected MP to his constituency and to

It might be worth recording what Chinamasa actually said last Tuesday that
caused the furore in the first place. This is how Hansard recorded his
remarks about Bennett: "He forgets that his forefathers were thieves. And he
forgets that what he owns - the whole of Chimanimani - was not because of
his intelligence but was a legacy ... That is an inheritance of stolen
wealth accumulated over a century-and-a-half. I want to warn him that we
have taken over Charleswood Farm, and he must not set foot again on that

"Bennett - I hope you are listening. Your forefathers were thieves whether
they came here in 1890 or stayed in England."

In fact Bennett bought Charleswood Farm in 1983 with a certificate of No
Present Interest from the government. The property comprises 7 000 acres, of
which 300 are arable and the remainder mountainside. Hardly the whole of
Chimanimani! And he consulted extensively among the local community before
buying the farm. They have supported him through thick and thin. And now
Zanu PF losers say he can't go back to his farm!

Didymus Mutasa, as always, managed to brighten things up with some suitably
daft remarks. He was accused by Bennett of kicking him from behind, a move
many would consider a good exhibition of Zanu PF bravery.

Asked by VoA if he had in fact kicked Bennett, Mutasa replied:

"Yes - restraining him from beating up a member of parliament. You don't
just wait there when a mad man is charging at you. It's true. I kicked him
very hard. What's wrong with that?"

Interviewer: "Some would ask that you could have restrained yourself just
like you are asking Mr Bennett to restrain himself."

Mutasa: "Why? Because I am a black man?"

Interviewer: "No - because you are a minister and an honourable member of

Mutasa: "Exactly, and that is what honour is all about. You don't just stand
there watching a fellow minister being abused."

Asked whether people should take the law into their own hands, now that it
appeared Bennett's safety was in question, Mutasa replied: "That's what he
was looking for, so he's going to have it. It's his fault.We are just
letting the events unfold in the country, and if the people go violent
against Bennett, and if he gets hurt in the process, it is his own outlook.
That is what he has been inviting and he's going to have it."

And this is a senior government minister, we need to remind ourselves!

There appear to be strenuous efforts by Zanu PF to justify its usurpation of
the powers of MDC executive mayors in Bulawayo and Harare. The Sunday Mail
ran a story about a celebration in Harare on Saturday to mark the
appointment of Witness Mangwende as resident minister and governor of the

This became an opportunity for Local Government minister Ignatius Chombo to
sing Mangwende's praises. He said Mangwende's appointment was "key to the
restoration of Harare's former glory as the Sunshine city".

This miraculous rebirth would be achieved through coordinated
infrastructural development and maintenance, said Chombo. He didn't say why
central government had not released those resources to a popularly elected
council or in what respect former mayor Elias Mudzuri had failed. Isn't it
true that residents' interests are being sacrificed to massage Zanu PF's
inordinately huge ego after losing control of the city to the opposition

In typical Zanu PF electioneering propaganda, residents were promised that
their transport problems "would soon be a thing of the past". Government was
going to purchase 150 buses and 65 commuter omnibuses through the Zimbabwe
United Passenger Company.

Is this the same outfit run by one Bright Matonga which managed to purchase
only 49 buses from the projected 200 last year? Has there been a change of
management since Matonga was taken to court on accusations of abusing public
funds meant for the purchase of Kopolo buses?

Of course it would be too much to expect a Sunday Mail reporter to ask any
of these inconvenient questions. It's easier for him to swallow the
propaganda and then regurgitate it for their gullible readers.

Did you notice the bottle of mineral water sitting beside President Mugabe
during his Sky News interview? Evidently the president shares with us a
distrust of Harare's water supply. But how many people can afford the
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Zim Independent

Multiple exchange rates hurt Zesa
Ngoni Chanakira
THE Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (Zesa) says the use of multiple
exchange rates for its services is among the major constraints hampering
efficiency at the parastatal.

Zesa general manager (corporate affairs) Obert Nyatanga said the parastatal
was faced with multiple exchange rates for pre-payment of current
electricity imports, arrears on imports, spares, operational and maintenance
works, as well as value added tax on imports.

"The many exchange rates used are affecting us," he said. "We have the rate
used by Zimra which is $3 875. Then we have the official exchange rate which
depends on the auction rate of the day, and then we have the parallel market
rate which is used when we source spares from other players in the

The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) is now using the going rate which stood
at $5 331,79 on Monday.

This is the rate that Zesa uses but it can change everytime an auction is

Nyatanga said the RBZ should prioritise foreign currency for Zesa imports
because it is an essential service.

Before the introduction of the monetary policy statement by the new governor
Gideon Gono, Zesa was given priority on foreign currency allocations.

This was however reversed when he took over in December last year.

The RBZ claims however that it still gives Zesa a priority on the auction

"We need prioritisation on the auction floors," Nyatanga said. "We are not
always given first preference. They should prioritise the queuing system in

He said the parastatal was in serious need of foreign currency for
prepayment of current imports, increase in arrears due to non-payment,
inability to service existing debt, and to secure spare parts for its
dilapidated plants.

Zesa's total electricity import arrears stand at US$56 million, down from
US$109,7 million last year.

Total arrears on the Zesa bills stand at $58,8 billion as at May 20, with
some over 90 days.

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Zim Independent

New farmers impinge on mining
Godfrey Marawanyika
A PARLIAMENTARY Committee on Mines, Energy, Environment and Tourism has
raised concern on the effects of land reform which it says is now causing
friction between miners and new farmers.

The committee has accused the new farmers of plotting to take over mines.

In a report the committee said the problem, which is mostly prevalent in
Kadoma and Masvingo districts, seemed to emanate from the subdivision of
large commercial farms into smallholder plots under the A1 model.

"Most of the land has been reduced to less than 100 hectares. Previously the
farmer and the miner could coexist without much friction as the farmer could
utilise one area while the miner could peg the remaining unutilised areas of
the farm," the report said.

"In some instances, the miners had acquired mining rights before the land
reform and new farmers now showing interest in mining as well are
threatening to take over mines."

In its first report, the 12-member committee chaired by Gabbuza Joel Gabuza
of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), said in some cases the miner
had to peg in small farmers' plots by consent upon discovery of the claim,
adding that in such cases consent was reached on condition the two enter
into a joint venture.

"There is, therefore, need for the Act to be amended to provide for a
framework for the two to co-exist in harmony under the new farming
dispensation," the report said.

Gabuza's team also raised concern on the wanton destruction of the
environment by alluvial gold panners whose operations it says need to be
"reined in".

The probe team said there was lack of monitoring of gold panning along major
rivers by local authorities, which they viewed as the training ground for
illegal mining activities.

"Your Committee was informed that the Statutory Instrument restricts panning
activities to certain areas along the rivers, which might not necessarily
contain the mineral and therefore faces resistance from panners," the report

"There was therefore need to put in place effective enforcement mechanism in
terms of implementing the statutory instrument."

The committee recommended that there was a need for the amendment of the
Mines and Minerals Act, which should be synchronised with those of the
Environment Management Act.

"Judging by the nature of concerns raised by the various stakeholders, it is
evident the Mines and Minerals Act in the present form is flawed in most
respects and hence management to some provisions would enable it to be
user-friendly legislation," the report said.

The land reform has been marred by lawlessness. The international community
has condemned the violent and discriminatory land reform. President Robert
Mugabe has however insisted that the reform is beneficial to locals.

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Zim Independent

Robertson defends parallel market culprits
Ngoni Chanakira
ECONOMIST John Robertson has come out strongly in favour of foreign currency
trading on the parallel market, saying government should not penalise
individuals who conducted their affairs on this market because they were
doing it for the benefit of the nation.

Robertson said parallel market rates came into use at a number of official
levels that validated the use of the rates by others.

"Air Zimbabwe calculated airfares, foreign embassies set visa fees and the
United Nations transferred money from external banks using the parallel
market rate," Robertson said in a presentation on foreign currency problems.

"Noczim also made use of the parallel market to overcome fuel shortages on
several occasions and the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe sourced money from this
market to pay the German company that printed the initial consignment of the
new $1 000 notes."

He said because the parallel market rate permitted those with foreign
exchange to buy Zimbabwe dollars at a significant discount, the market
helped to attract foreign exchange into Zimbabwe in the hands of traders and
visitors, and Zimbabweans working abroad willingly sent it to relatives and

Robertson said to try to ensure that the money would be transferred safely,
they often used formal banking channels and various internet sites that
ensured the payments were made to local beneficiaries.

"Significant proportions of all goods sold by retailers and manufacturers
were paid for with money earned abroad, and most of this money would not
have been brought or sent into the country if the rigid official rates had
ruled for its conversion into Zimbabwe dollars," he said.

Robertson said all of this activity arose from the distortions that were
injected into the financial system through the adoption by the authorities
of unworkable, irrational and illogical exchange rate policies.

"The faults lay entirely with the policy-makers, not with the individuals
who found they could take advantage of the gaps opened up by imposed
distortions," he said. "Government should now accept full responsibility for
the entirely predictable behaviour patterns that emerged. Its own active
involvement in the parallel market was ample proof of the inadequacy of the
laid-down policy directives and the maintenance of these defective measures
year-after-year is proof of the incompetence of the policy-makers."

Robertson said any move at this stage to penalise businesses or individuals
that were forced to use the parallel market to buy or sell foreign exchange,
whether for survival or for profit, whether willingly or under duress,
should be immediately ruled out of order.

"Government has the only case to answer, as it was never given the mandate
to create impossible conditions for citizens engaged in normal business
activities," he said.

NMB Ltd bosses Julius Makoni and James Mushore fled the country after
government accused them of externalising foreign currency among other

They too contend they are not guilty of the charges.
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Zim Independent

Poor Zimbabwe image haunts hoteliers
Ngoni Chanakira
LEADING hotel and leisure group Zimsun Ltd says Zimbabwe's poor
international image continues to be a challenge and is seriously affecting
business in the tourism sector.

The sentiments come at a time when the Zimbabwe Tourism Authority (ZTA) has
been high-profiling the country's allegedly impressive tourist figures,
saying Zimbabwe was headed for a tourism boom.

Judging from Zimsun's comments in its annual results for the audited period
ended March 31, the situation on the ground as regards tourists and
cashflow, is very different from official guestimates.

Turnover at Zimsun grew by 434% to $43,218 billion while occupancies
weakened by 3% to 42% compared to the prior year.

Foreign arrivals contributed 25% of room nights, a marginal decline compared
to 27% last year.

Zimsun chief executive officer Shingi Munyeza said however these arrivals
only contributed 39% to overall revenues, receding from 56% in the prior
year, a direct result of the unfavourable exchange rate that prevailed in
the second half.

Munyeza is also Zimbabwe Council for Tourism (ZCT) president.

Zimsun foreign revenues grew by 286% over the period, falling far short of
year-on-year inflation levels.

Overall Zimsun posted a profit of $3,402 billion, a virtual standstill
position compared to the prior year.

"Such profit was attained primarily in the first half of the year, as in
prior years and as is normal for the Zimbabwean tourism industry, patronage
is relatively lethargic in the second half of the year," Munyeza told
shareholders this week.

"The poor international image continues to be a challenge. Remarkable
strides have been taken to return the economy to some semblance of normalcy
and a renewed commitment on the part of the authorities to contain inflation
is evident," Munyeza said. "One can only hope that such commitment will be
taken the full mile, otherwise the gains made so far will be reversed
momentarily. Unless inflation is contained, exchange rate stability will
remain elusive. Foreign arrivals which in the past contributed significantly
to group profits may become even less profitable."

Munyeza said he hoped the hosting of the soccer World Cup in 2010 by South
Africa would further bring a positive awareness to the sub-region with
immediate effect.

Zimsun, through its wholly-owned subsidiary, African Sun Ltd, recently
acquired the lease and operating business of The Grace in Rosebank,

The hotel is a five-star, 75-roomed property.

The acquisition was by way of an offshore funding structure and took effect
on April 1.

Munyeza said the acquisition would help move the group into the South
African market.

"This will go a long way in diluting negative perceptions on the region," he
said on Wednesday.

Munyeza said patronage from traditional source markets had remained

"Global travel has contracted, reportedly by 6%, following the Severe Acute
Respiratory Syndrome (Sars) outbreak earlier in the year and threats of
further attacks, compounded by a general loss of confidence in the aftermath
of the Iraq war," he said.

Munyeza said the general loss of confidence precipitated by the financial
crisis in the last quarter had not spared the industry.

"By the end of the year, domestic tourism, which over the years had grown in
significance, had shrunk by 21% compared to prior year," he said.

"Limited air access to the Victoria Falls and the fuel shortages experienced
during the period, also contributed to the decline in domestic patronage.
Collectively, hyperinflation pressures, the financial crisis and the
implementation of the new monetary policies further toughened the operating
environment in the last quarter."

Munyeza said in addition, as the exchange rate struggled to keep pace with
inflation during the second half of the year, export performance was further

"A weakening of the local currency experienced after April, together with
export incentives introduced in May, are a welcome dose of relief to the
industry, although more is needed," he said.

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Zim Independent

Absurd to play rough and tough while nation starves

I AM yet to meet a Zimbabwean who doesn't hope for a better future for
Zimbabwe. Everyday, thousands of miles away from home, we remain Zimbabweans
to the very core and always look forward to reading the good news from our
sweet motherland.

It is because of this natural fondness for my country that I read with
excitement and joy a recent report in the Herald saying that for the first
time in three years Zimbabwe was not going to import any food because there
was enough for everyone. (Actually, I don't remember the Herald ever
admitting Zimbabwe was importing food, but I didn't care.)

A government minister was quoted confirming this, and added that donors need
not worry about Zimbabwe anymore.

However, after reading conflicting reports from other media, and after
Muckraker's reminder of Joseph Made's similar remarks last year, I was
naturally disappointed that I had celebrated prematurely. Why, for goodness
sake, would anyone want to play macho at the expense of people's lives?

I know it would not do Zanu PF any good to appear to be beggars after
pulling out of the Commonwealth and deciding we could do it alone.

We know there are instances where personal egos would let us stretch our
abilities to the very limit.

Any young man who has ever dated a woman would surely testify that sometimes
being tough and rough might gain you an extra point or two. However, where
people's lives are concerned, I do not believe it is wise to pretend all is
well when it is not.

Whether Zimbabwe's foot shortages were caused by drought or by Zanu PF's
pathetic land reform programme doesn't matter.

What matters is that people are starving and they are going to die, unless
they eat. We need all the help we can get. We can play rough and tough in
times of plenty, but where people's lives are concerned, it would be absurd
to feign invincibility.

And I wonder too if the people at the Herald have any morals. Surely, how
can they mislead people thus?

Hudson Taivo,


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Zim Independent

Time for New Zim dollar worth $1 000?

I WISH to open debate on whether the time is now right for Zimbabwe to
consider introducing a new currency - my suggestion the New Zim dollar worth
$1 000 - in light of our runaway inflation.

On a change-over date, say January 1 2005, all bank accounts would be quoted
in the new currency.

Naturally, extensive education campaigns will be required as well as a
transition period where people can bank-exchange their old notes for new.
Obviously many technical issues will need to be ironed out to ensure a
successful transition. However, I am sure the Reserve Bank is perfectly
capable of managing such an exercise.

I cannot be the only one who considers the mind-boggling numbers that we are
talking about these days to be ludicrous. Let us restore some sanity to our
financial system.

C Kagoro,

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Zim Independent

With blundering Made who needs enemies?

I WAS astounded to read that Zimbabwe would not require any food aid in the
2004/2005 season.

Having visited Zimbabwe in April and travelled on the Harare/Mutare,
Harare/Bulawayo and Harare/Kariba road I am gobsmacked by the claim that the
grain harvest will be about 2,4 million tonnes.

In 2000 the Minister of Agriculture Joseph Made claimed that he had flown
all over the country and the evidence on the ground pointed to a bumper
harvest. The out-turn was disastrous.

A joke doing the rounds here in the UK is in 2000 Minister Made mistook the
Msasa trees for maize but in 2004 he has mistaken both the Msasa trees and
grass for maize. With such incompetent people at the helm who needs enemies?

This whole fiasco reminds me of one Lovegot Tendengu pontificating that he
was "Mr Tobacco" and the 2003/2004 season's output would be 200 million kgs.
The out-turn was a miserable 60 million kgs. At least Tendengu has had the
sense to keep his little gob shut this year.


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Zim Independent

Editor's Memo

Iden Wetherell
SKY News' interview with President Mugabe has certainly received wide
coverage. But it did nothing to enhance his standing with the network's
viewers, according to a survey.

The interview, conducted last Friday by Sky's Africa correspondent Stuart
Ramsay, was broadcast four times on Monday and again in the early hours of
Tuesday. It was also reported in the international press and reproduced in
our local state media.

In Sky's post-interview poll where viewers respond to a specific question,
86% said they did not find Mugabe convincing. That was by yesterday, up from
67% after the initial broadcast!

The result is hardly surprising. Mugabe was less than credible. For instance
he suggested that the opposition "get their voices heard in parliament" just
a day after Zanu PF officials threatened MP Roy Bennett with dire
consequences if he set foot either in parliament or his constituency again.

The president said there was more violence emanating from the MDC than Zanu
PF, a claim unlikely to succeed given the evidence on the ground.

On Tuesday it was reported that a senior CIO officer was instrumental in the
2000 petrol bomb attack in Buhera on Tichaona Chiminya and Talent Mabika. We
still don't know the result of police investigations into the torture of Job
Sikhala and Gabriel Shumba, among others.

And who is likely to accept the president's claim that polling stations in
Harare in 2002 were closed early because people were trying to vote more
than once? Has that been mentioned in any official report?

"All the African groups pronounced the election fair," the president

No they didn't. Sadc's parliamentary forum said the conduct of the 2002 poll
did not meet its electoral norms and standards. I recall the Ghanaian
observer mission saying something similar. And the Commonwealth observer
mission, headed by a former Nigerian leader, was very clear on the poll's

Generally, it can be said, Mugabe's answers were unsatisfactory. He was
delusional about crop production, in denial about violence and abusive about
critics such as Desmond Tutu and Pius Ncube.

Attacking Tutu in the way he did ("an angry, evil and embittered little
bishop") will have been counter-productive. Tutu is a much-loved icon of the
struggle against apartheid both in South Africa and internationally. It is
not for Zimbabwean leaders to question his role.

When confronted by evidence of children at Porta Farm school surviving on
aid from international donors, Mugabe suggested the headmaster must have
said that because "he knows your mentality, the mentality of the whites, it
is always negative."

That sort of remark may play well in Zvimba but it will have gone down like
a lead balloon internationally. Who is advising Mugabe in all this? Not
being able to provide a figure for expenditure on his Borrowdale mansion - a
gift from the party - was inadequate by any standard, especially in an era
of acute housing shortages, and has raised a host of new questions which the
Malaysians, among others, are having to parry.

The government press exposed a power play ahead of the interview in which
the ruling party's information chief, Nathan Shamuyarira, backed the
interview while officials in the Department of Information opposed it.

"It seems that the real movers behind this interview were from Zanu PF
itself," Ramsay commented on Sky News' website.

"For many months it had been intimated to us that Zanu PF had been concerned
about the image of both the country and the party to the outside world."

Ramsay said he met senior figures who believe the country can be turned

"They also believe one of their best assets is the President himself - when
allowed to talk at length.

"Certainly the Ministry of Information and the President's top adviser on
the media, Professor Jonathan Moyo, had taken a different line. They prefer
to keep foreign journalists out of the country and the President under

"But this time they failed."

Moyo expressed his frustration in yesterday's Herald accusing Sky News of
"premeditated malice".

I think those who opposed the interview were probably right in their
concerns. Mugabe is no longer the suave and self-confident interviewee he
once was. And he was not on top form last Friday when the interview was
recorded. He appeared wan and drawn.

He interrupted questions too quickly (which local interviewers would never
dare do with him!). And his speech was occasionally indistinct.

The habit of suddenly leaning forward to reply to questions he didn't like
gave an impression of menace rather than self-assurance. And his hearing
seemed to be defective at times.

Frankly I think the interview with Supa Mandiwanzira last year was more
revealing in terms of the questions asked and the replies given. But it is
significant that no journalist from the independent press or foreign
correspondent based here has been allowed to interview the president for
several years now.

I can't believe the president is scared of us, but his handlers obviously

Ramsay is not an experienced Zimbabwe-watcher. As a result he gave a few
hostages to fortune (not knowing exactly how much Britain paid for land
redistribution). But he did a great job in raising the right issues and
situating Zimbabwe back on the international radar.

We can safely assume that is where those who opposed the interview hoped it
wouldn't end up.

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