The ZIMBABWE Situation Our thoughts and prayers are with Zimbabwe
- may peace, truth and justice prevail.

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No more Mr Nice Guy, Mugabe tells protesters

Chris McGreal, Africa correspondent
Tuesday April 2, 2002
The Guardian

Robert Mugabe has said that he will no longer be "soft" on his critics after
a coalition of churches, trade unions and civic groups called for mass
protests next weekend against the rigging of last month's presidential
In a speech that implicitly acknowledged the wave of terror already
unleashed against his opponents since the ballot, Zimbabwe's president also
vowed that there will be no new election and that the opposition will never

Mr Mugabe told a victory party in Zvimba, 25 miles south-west of Harare,
that he will not tolerate attempts to make Zimbabwe ungovernable "by those
bent on causing chaos".

"Those who want to rebel and become lawless, we will deal with them firmly,"
he said. "They think we will continue to be soft. But that has gone. It's
finished. We are now in a new phase and there will be a firm government."

Mr Mugabe also rejected calls from the opposition Movement for Democratic
Change and Nigeria's president, Olusegun Obasanjo, for a fresh election by
saying that it was part of a British plot to depose him.

"This talk about fresh elections, where will these be re-run?" he asked. "If
they [Britain and other western governments] want, let them help the MDC in
Britain and do their elections there. That's where they can win. They can
never win elections in Zim babwe... They will never, ever rule this

The National Constitutional Assembly, an alliance of human rights activists,
trade unions and religious groups, has called for street demonstrations on
Saturday against the outcome of the disputed election.

The MDC and its supporters say that a combination of tactics - such as
striking hundreds of thousands of people from the voters' roll, engineering
obstacles to voting and straightforward ballot box stuffing - delivered Mr
Mugabe an illegitimate victory.

The NCA says that the protest will mark the start of a rolling campaign of
civil disobedience in defiance of new security laws that carry long prison
sentences, and even the death penalty, for what the government defines as
acts of "treason".

Previous challenges to Mr Mugabe by the NCA have been poorly attended. Only
40 people went to the last one, in November, and it was swiftly broken up by
the police. Like wise, a three-day general strike by trade unions after the
election was a flop.

But there is evidence of growing anger at the torrent of state-sponsored
violence unleashed across the country against Mr Mugabe's opponents and
entire areas that voted against him in the presidential election.

Last week, police used tear gas to break up a riot in a township near the
southern city of Bulawayo in which residents trapped and stoned members of
the ruling Zanu- PF militia responsible for punishment beatings of Mr
Mugabe's opponents and attacks on houses.

But the real suffering is for villagers in rural areas, where the army and
ruling party militia have unleashed a wave of terror.

Although opposition activists are the favoured targets for beatings and
abductions, entire villages have been persecuted with thousands of people
tortured and women raped.

Tens of thousands of people have been forced from their homes by mobs of
soldiers and militia intent on punishing Mr Mugabe's critics and
demonstrating their power.

Zimbabwe's white farmers have also endured an upsurge in violence. One
farmer has been murdered and many more driven from their property after Mr
Mugabe announced his intention to seize hundreds more farms immediately.
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How I found ugly truth of Mugabe's police state
(Filed: 02/04/2002)

THE Telegraph correspondent in Zimbabwe, Peta Thornycroft, tells of her
four-day prison ordeal

WHEN six men - one wearing fake Ray-Ban sunglasses - walked up to my table
in the Msasa Cafe among the Chimanimani mountains, I knew that this was it.

Since returning to Zimbabwe last August to replace David Blair, who had been
refused a renewal of his work permit to report for The Telegraph, the small
corps of foreign correspondents believed that one or more of us would be
nabbed at some time. Six of us had already been called terrorists by the
state's press.

But with the presidential election over, and among the extraordinary beauty
of the Chimanimani mountains, it was the last thing on my mind. I was
enjoying a cup of tea in the cafe, waiting to meet a contact. The men
surrounded my table and insisted I go with them.

I asked for their identification. Two of them showed me cards from the
Zimbabwe Republic Police. I paid my bill and, accompanied by two of the
group, got into my car and drove to the police station.

I made a phone call to a friend in Harare, who is an old hand at being
arrested. I asked him to make three calls: to Beatrice Mtetwa, a solicitor
in Harare, to The Telegraph and to my host in Chimanimani, Lord Plunkett.

Then the questions began. I told them I was a journalist working for a
British newspaper. But, given that the Zimbabwean government hates both the
independent press and all things British, it was a dangerous admission. The
police said they had to check my bona fides.

I produced my metal identification card, which all Zimbabweans are obliged
to carry since the Public Order and Security Act was rammed through
parliament in February. The wait began - more questions, more chit-chat, and
then my mobile phone rang.

It was David Blair at the The Telegraph in London. He had bad news. Lawyers
had discovered that I was not, as I believed, in the custody of the police,
but of the feared Central Intelligence Organisation.

Suddenly it was no longer a case of mistaken identify, or over-zealousness,
that could be fixed with a little common sense.

Robin Plunkett and his wife Jennifer arrived. A long-standing champion of
majority rule in Zimbabwe, he has considerable standing in the community and
with the police, but even he got no joy. I heard him being told that I was a
"very rude woman". They knew, however, that he was watching what happened to
me. He was allowed a few words with me.

The Plunketts came back with a basket of food, and among it was a glass jar
filled with one of the strongest Scotches ever poured.

Lord Plunkett told the CIO: "The last time I took food to people in jail was
when Robert Mugabe and Leopold Takawira [an early nationalist] were

Eventually, the CIO decided to hand me over to the police. I was told I was
charged under the draconian POSA. legislation. Under this law, journalists
can be jailed for a year for criticising the president, his cabinet or the
security forces, or writing anything deemed false or economically harmful.

I was exhausted and longing for bed. They removed anything that could
possibly have been used to harm myself. An inventory was taken of my
possessions and I was led up the hill behind the police station.

I saw that the night sky was clearer than any I had seen in years. The
Southern Cross was bright and reassuring, and the distant mountains were
just visible; so beautiful.

The cell was not. It was bare, with three smelly blankets and a hole in the
ground in the corner for a lavatory: the inevitable smell of urine, the slam
of the door, and there I was - barefoot, braless and bloody cold. As dawn
broke, I could see the distant mountains through an eight-inch square of
mesh in the rusty old door. The day staff arrived. I was taken to sit in the
duty officers' room.

A Sergeant Marimuse - with the ubiquitous mock Ray-Bans - asked a series of
fatuous questions as he went through my notebook and list of contacts. The
morning stretched into the afternoon. Eventually, I was handed over to four
policeman from provincial headquarters who drove me to Mutare, the regional

There, the police allowed me to see my cousins and eat some fruit. They then
took me to another cell - with fewer blankets, no view and an even stronger
smell of urine.

The days turned into nights, and along the way a detective managed to write
out a charge sheet accusing me of working without accreditation under a
media law that was promulgated a week after last month's presidential

Late on Sunday, at an urgent hearing in the Harare High Court, it was ruled
that the section under which I was charged was unconstitutional, and the
police were ordered to release me. They were in no hurry. The provincial
commander refused to sign my release papers. But my solicitor finally found
an officer who would, and I was freed into a balmy night in the shabby town
close to where I grew up.

Piecing it together, my arrest was not connected with being a journalist.
The paranoid intelligence community in Chimanimani saw an unknown white
woman driving with a black passenger in a South African-registered car, so
some part-time "revolutionary" believed that I was a security risk. For
them, it was a bonus that I was working for a British newspaper.

I learned during snatches of overheard conversation that the following is
true in the eyes of the "freedom fighters" in Chimanimani: Tony Blair has
the British navy patrolling off the Mozambique coast, ready to airlift in
troops to recolonise Zimbabwe.

Close your eyes to the mountains and endless sky, and Chimanimani is an ugly
little town, like so many in Zimbabwe, where there is no democracy, where
the opposition voice has been stilled or forced underground, where giving a
lift to a man with some connection to the opposition can land one in prison
for five nights and four days.

The police have just phoned. I must present myself at Mutare magistrate's
court today at 8.30am.
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Justice in Zimbabwe
(Filed: 02/04/2002)

IN the tyranny that has overtaken Zimbabwe, it requires a brave voice to
stand up to the abuse of executive power.

Yet it has repeatedly been done - by the opposition Movement for Democratic
Change (MDC) under Morgan Tsvangirai; by the trade unions; by the Amani
Trust human rights group; by Pius Ncube, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of
Bulawayo; and by parts of the press and judiciary.

It was a member of the last group, Mr Justice Adam, a High Court judge, who
ordered the release of Peta Thornycroft, the Daily Telegraph correspondent
in Zimbabwe, on Easter Day. She had been arrested last week in the eastern
town of Chimanimani, where she had been investigating reports of a violent
campaign against the MDC. Its candidate, Mr Tsvangirai, lost to Robert
Mugabe in a rigged presidential election last month.

The judge struck down as unconstitutional the section of the Access to
Information and Protection of Privacy Act under which Ms Thornycroft had
been charged. He gave the government 10 days to reply to his ruling. That
hearing will take place in the Supreme Court, which, unfortunately, has a
far smaller proportion of independent voices than the High Court bench.

Our correspondent, whose detention was completely unjustified, is by no
means out of the wood. But it is heartening to see Zimbabweans such as Mr
Justice Adam insisting, against formidable odds, on the maintenance of the
rule of law.

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New doubts cast on Mugabe victory

   David Ignatius International Herald Tribune  Tuesday, April 2, 2002

Fearing election defeat, aides said to have inflated vote totals

PARIS New allegations that Robert Mugabe won last month's presidential
election by fraud are presenting the United States, the Commonwealth and
African governments with a delicate political problem: How to pressure
Mugabe to relinquish power without triggering chaos in Zimbabwe.
The new fraud charges center on what happened in the hours before the Mugabe
government's official announcement that he had won the March 9-11 election
with 53 percent of the vote. According to Western officials who have
interviewed reliable sources inside Zimbabwe, the ruling ZANU-PF Party
manipulated those reported results through a "command center" in the
capital, Harare, that was supervised by two of Mugabe's top aides: the
minister of state for national security, Nicholas Goche, and the ZANU-PF
secretary for administration, Emmerson Mnangawa.
According to officials who have seen detailed intelligence reports on the
new charges, officials at the ZANU-PF command center realized that despite
attempts to reduce the opposition vote Mugabe was running well behind and
was in danger of losing by 200,000 to 300,000 votes. The Mugabe operatives
were said to have been surprised by how well the opposition candidate,
Morgan Tsvangirai, and his Movement for Democratic Change were doing in
Mashonaland, a rural area in central Zimbabwe that was expected to back
Fearing they would lose, officials in the ZANU-PF command center "fiddled
the figures" by adding tens of thousands of names to Mugabe's total before
the ballots were sent on to the Registrar-General, Tobaiwa Mudede, for a
final count, according to an official who has reviewed the evidence gathered
by Zimbabwean insiders.
During the period when votes were being counted, there was a sudden jump in
the total votes cast, from 2.4 million to 2.9 million, according to R.W.
Johnson, a former Oxford professor who was in Zimbabwe at the time covering
the elections for a British newspaper. Johnson said Monday in a telephone
interview from South Africa that the sudden increase was "totally
unexplained" at the time, and was "bigger than the president's winning
margin." The final total of votes cast was just over 3 million.
These inside accounts suggest that there may have been an extra layer of
manipulation in the Zimbabwe election process - beyond the intimidation and
violence that already has drawn worldwide condemnation. The new reports
indicate that Mugabe would have lost even after what observers described as
a massive ZANU-PF campaign to intimidate opposition voters, especially in
urban areas.
Mugabe, who has led Zimbabwe since it became independent in 1980, has
dismissed charges of improprieties in the election process and has called
his victory a "stunning blow to imperialism."
The new reports sharpen the dilemma for other governments in the region,
especially those of South Africa and Nigeria. They reluctantly agreed to
back a Commonwealth decision March 19 to suspend Zimbabwe for one year. That
decision followed reports by Commonwealth observers that Mugabe's victory
had been "marred by a high level of politically motivated violence."
The political choice is especially delicate for the South African president,
Thabo Mbeki, whose nation borders Zimbabwe and has been a crucial ally for
Mugabe in the past. The South Africans, joined by Nigeria, had initially
backed Mugabe's victory claims but then switched to join Australia in urging
the Commonwealth sanctions. Analysts believe that continued pressure by
Mbeki could force political change in Zimbabwe and reduce the flight by
white-owned businesses and individuals from that country and South Africa.
Immediately after Mugabe announced victory, the United States rejected the
election as "neither free nor fair." The State Department said in that March
12 statement that it was considering expanding its own existing economic
sanctions against Mugabe's regime.
The new allegations about vote-rigging have been shared with the United
States, Britain, Australia and some other Commonwealth countries. Officials
who had been briefed on the reports made them available last week to the
International Herald Tribune.
Several studies of the Zimbabwe election have pointed to massive
irregularities, both in the run-up to the vote and in the actual tabulation
of ballots.
Tsvangirai's Movement for Democratic Change, or MDC, said in a report issued
in early March that in the weeks before the election, 83 of its rallies had
been disrupted or canceled, and that its "members and people perceived to be
supporters were tortured, beaten and killed."
The MDC report also charged that prior to the election, "the number of
polling stations was vastly reduced in urban areas and increased in rural
areas." The report also contended that MDC operatives "were prevented by
ZANU-PF militia from deploying polling agents in 52 percent of rural polling
More evidence of irregularities comes from Johnson, the former Oxford
professor, who has conducted numerous political polls in Zimbabwe for the
Helen Suzman Foundation in South Africa, which he directed until recently.
Johnson has also written occasional articles about Zimbabwe for The Sunday
Times of London.
In a paper prepared after the balloting, Johnson focused on the role played
by the registrar-general, Mudede, who had responsibility for certifying the
final count and the integrity of Zimbabwe's official electoral rolls.
A key issue, according to Johnson, is the number of people officially
registered as voters. After repeated lawsuits, a reform group called the
Zimbabwe Civic Education Trust was allowed to examine the official register
early this year and counted about 5.2 million voters. Then in the remaining
two months before the election, according to Johnson, ZANU-PF "rushed out
and illegally registered 400,000 extra voters in rural areas, all of whom
Mudede added to his final roll, which came out at 5,612,272 voters."
"It is child's play to show that this voters' roll of 5.6 million is
nonsense," Johnson wrote in his paper. He said that studies show the actual
voting age population in Zimbabwe is only about 4.8 million. "Thus around
1.8 million of the people on Mudede's roll do not really exist - thus
providing him and ZANU-PF with a vast reservoir of fictional voters who can
be 'mobilized' at will when the going gets tough," he wrote.
What's more, noted Johnson, the Zimbabwe Civic Education Trust conducted an
analysis of a sample of the official register. That study "reveals that only
50 percent of the names on the roll actually live at the addresses given and
are thus entitled to vote in their constituency," Johnson said.
Johnson calculates that the number of false votes for Mugabe last month was
between 900,000 and 1.1 million. Without this cushion, Mugabe would have
lost to Tsvangirai by at least 466,000 votes, Johnson estimates.
"It seems certain," he wrote, "that despite the effects of terror and
intimidation that he [Mugabe] did actually lose the election quite heavily."

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Australia to discuss Zimbabwe with NZ, Canada

CANBERRA, April 2 — Australian Prime Minister John Howard said on Tuesday he
will use his trip to London next week for the funeral of the Queen Mother to
discuss Zimbabwe with the leaders of Canada, New Zealand and the
        Howard said he believed pressure would grow on organisers of the
Commonwealth Games to ban Zimbabwe from the event in Manchester in July but
stressed individual countries could not stop the troubled African nation
from taking part.
       Australia has said it would keep open the option of imposing
sanctions on Zimbabwe but ruled out immediate unilateral action following
the re-election last month of President Robert Mugabe and the suspension of
Zimbabwe from the 54-nation Commonwealth.
       The grouping of mostly former British colonies last month suspended
Zimbabwe from its councils for a year over Mugabe's controversial electoral
win but stopped short of the sort of sanctions imposed by the European Union
and the United States.
       Howard said he had already spoken to New Zealand Prime Minister Helen
Clark and hoped that if Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien also attended
the royal funeral the three nations could discuss possible future
Commonwealth action on Zimbabwe.
       ''(Clark and I) agreed to get together in London and if Jean
Chretien, the Canadian prime minister is there, which I think is very
likely, we'll probably have a meeting the three of us, perhaps with the
Commonwealth secretary-general to talk further about Zimbabwe,'' Howard told
Melbourne radio.
       Clark wants Zimbabwe excluded from the Commonwealth Games but Canada
has dismissed that call. Howard said it was a decision which could only be
made by the Commonwealth Games Federation.
       ''We cannot as governments, not in our kind of free society, stop
people from coming. But I wouldn't be surprised if pressure for that
grows,'' Howard said.
       The funeral of the Queen Mother, to be held Tuesday, April 9 in
London, is expected to draw world leaders and diplomats.
       Howard was part of a three-nation Commonwealth committee which met in
London last month to suspend Zimbabwe.
       Donors, including the IMF and the World Bank, have already cut off
financial aid to Zimbabwe in protest the government's political and economic
policies that include the seizure of white-owned lands as well as Mugabe's
disputed election victory last month.

The Age

Howard says pressure growing for Zimbabwe Games expulsion
CANBERRA, April 2 AAP|Published: Tuesday April 2, 5:09 PM

Prime Minister John Howard today said pressure was mounting for Zimbabwe to
be expelled from this year's Commonwealth Games.

A troika of Commonwealth leaders, chaired by Howard, last month suspended
Zimbabwe from the Commonwealth for 12 months.

The action followed the recent re-election of president Robert Mugabe, who
was accused of widespread intimidation and abuses during the election

The Australian cricket team cancelled a tour of the nation but so far the
country is free to compete at the Commonwealth Games in Manchester in July.

Howard said a decision to expel Zimbabwe rested with the Commonwealth Games

"We cannot as governments, not in our kind of free society, stop people
coming but I wouldn't be surprised if pressure for that grows," Howard told
radio 3AW.

"I think pressure for that will grow."

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The Daily News

National Foods suffers huge losses as farm invasions take their toll

4/2/02 8:44:47 AM (GMT +2)

Farming Reporter

NATIONAL Foods Holdings Limited, says there must be regular revision of
prices of goods in tandem with high inflation levels.

Godfrey Gomwe, the company chairman, made the statement in the group’s
inflation-adjusted results for the year ending 31 December 2001.

He said National Foods recorded a $638 483 000 loss down from $1 039 997
million achieved during the comparable period last year.

However, its historical results show a profit $1 207 057 000.

“With annual inflation exceeding 100 percent, the price controls imposed in
October 2001 are a major concern as no upward adjustments have been made to
date in spite of applications to the authorities,” said Gomwe. “It is
essential that there is timeous reaction to cost increases to prevent
serious erosion and long term damage to the group's financial base.”

Gomwe said lack of flour imports and its shortage locally had affected the
company's operations.

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The Daily News

Kamushinda backs land reform

4/2/02 8:46:10 AM (GMT +2)

By Ngoni Chanakira Business Editor

Despite the continued criticism of President Mugabe’s fast track Land Reform
Programme by numerous local and international organisations, the
Metropolitan Bank of Zimbabwe Limited (Metropolitan), says the move will
help transform Zimbabwe’s economy.

In its audited financial results for the period ended 31 December, 2001, the
bank’s chairman, Enoch Kamushinda, said he believed that there was “no going
back on the land reform programme as it has the capacity to create new
wealth, new investment, raise production levels and increase exports, which
will spur rapid recovery and growth of the economy”.

The statement comes barely two weeks after Kamushinda praised the land
programme at State House, immediately after the inauguration of President
Mugabe as Head of State.

Kamushinda said then that the land programme would help curb inflation
because individuals would become self-sufficient and not need to buy
agricultural products from supermarkets. The Metropolitan Bank boss wears
several hats especially within companies and organisations associated with
the government.

He is the secretary general of the Indigenous Business Development Centre,
chairs the Grain Marketing Board, which was given the monopoly to import
grains including maize for the country, and the state-controlled Zimbabwe
Newspapers (1980) Limited Group.

Kamushinda, whose bank’s profit after tax increased by 301 percent to
$703,8 million during the period under review, said the economy was facing
one of the most challenging periods in more than two decades.

He said the bank’s capital adequacy ratio now stood at 36,9 percent, well
above the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe’s minimum requirement of 10 percent.

Kamushinda said: “The limited access to credit lines due to misplaced
perceptions about the political situation in the country has affected the
performance of key industry sectors, with some companies facing difficulties
in maintaining operations.

“Despite these temporary setbacks, we commend government efforts to
accelerate the land reform programme, as well as economically empower the
majority indigenous people in the face of stiff opposition and resistance
from certain sections of the local and international community. The bank
strongly believes that these noble and long overdue initiatives continue to
be the beacon of hope and stability for the economy” he said.

He said consumers had also resorted to buying cheaper and lower quality
maize products as they tried to avert economic hardships, thus affecting the
company’s maize meal sales.

Price controls and farm invasions, as in any other agriculture related
company, seem to have affected National Foods operations to a large extent.

“Stockfeeds volumes were adversely affected by the ongoing disruptions in
the agricultural sector and in the latter half of the year, price controls
were imposed on certain beef, chicken and pork products impacting on demand
for feed,” said Gomwe.
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The Daily News

WFP battles to avert starvation in region

4/2/02 8:45:33 AM (GMT +2)

By Columbus Mavhunga

The World Food Programme, (WFP) is struggling to raise funds to buy food to
avert the starvation of Zimbabweans as international donors were reportedly
not forthcoming and are reluctant to help.

The WFP, a United Nations agency, is battling to avert starvation in
Zimbabwe and other countries in the region.

Zimbabwe is facing one of its worst food shortages as a result of
Cyclone-Eline induced floods that rocked some parts of the country and the
controversial Œfast-track’ land reform programme.

The WFP has so far managed to raise less than a third of the required US$60
million (Z$3 300 million) to avert starvation. Pedro Figueiredo, the head of
logistics and planning of the WFP Zimbabwe, through his assistant, last week
said he was not interested in talking to the Press on the issue.

However, a source within the organisation said: “The current perception
about Zimbabwe has affected our pleas for humanitarian aid. There has been
some difficulties in raising funds to buy food; the international world is
not forthcoming.”

The WFP last week warned of imminent mass starvation in several
drought-stricken southern African countries. About 2,6 million people across
the region are already suffering from severe food shortages.

The worst-hit countries are Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland and
Mozambique, which two years ago suffered from floods.
Last week a UK-based newspaper, The Independent, said food aid to Zimbabwe
could run out by July.

The paper said the drought had combined with the mass displacement of people
and the state-sponsored invasion by the land-hungry poor of 4 000 commercial
farms, to seriously disrupt production in the agriculture sector that used
to be a net surplus exporter.

Missing meals and eliminating the staple maize-meal from diets has become
the norm in most households.

Natural disasters and the high price of maize have made hundreds of
thousands of people reliant on food aid for survival.

The Independent quoted Judith Lewis, the regional director for east and
southern Africa, as saying: “Much more must swiftly be done to stave off the
spread of hunger and malnutrition. Now is the time to act to prevent what is
now a crisis from developing into a major disaster.”

The WFP said this year’s low yields, exacerbated by a “vicious dry spell,
which has swept through the region and withered crops, would cause great

Coming on the heels of a similarly poor 2000/2001 crop, the effect of this
year’s poor harvest could be devastating”. Most crops, including maize, a
staple crop in Zimbabwe were now a complete write-off.

Zimbabwe has so far imported more than 200 000 tonnes of maize from South

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The Daily News

Top cops implicated in farm invasions, looting

4/2/02 8:20:04 AM (GMT +2)

By Lloyd Mudiwa

IT HAS now emerged that the police were indeed involved in last year’s wave
of terror by suspected war veterans and Zanu PF supporters against
commercial farmers and the looting of property worth millions of dollars in
Mashonaland West province.

Last August, the police denied reports of their involvement in the looting
of more than 40 commercial farms after The Daily News broke the story.

They reacted by arresting Geoffrey Nyarota, the paper’s Editor-in-Chief,
Bill Saidi, the Assistant Editor, John Gambanga, the News Editor, and Sam
Munyavi, a reporter, for allegedly breaching a section of the Law and Order
(Maintenance) Act over a story published in which it was alleged that police
vehicles were used in the orgy of looting on farms in the province.

The four are being accused of publishing false news.

In a case in the High Court on Wednesday last week, the officer-in-charge of
Mutorashanga police station, Inspector George Magonda, and his subordinate,
Sergeant Shusha Makiwa, were implicated in the invasion of Landfall Farm in
Mutorashanga and the looting of property worth at least $10 million.

John Robert Patrick Ashton and his family, represented by Nikita Madya of
Wintertons’, said the two were among 12 respondents involved in illegal
activities on the farm although it was not designated for acquisition.

They have both denied the allegations and filed opposing affidavits.
Ashton cited Augustine Chihuri, the Commissioner of Police, as Magonda and
Makiwa’s superior.

Justice Mahomed Adam, the presiding judge, granted Ashton a final order
directing the eviction of the invaders and the return of his property.

The ruling does not, however, apply to Magonda and Makiwa since they
challenged Ashton’s application for the order. Adam said their case would be
dealt with as an opposed matter.

Ashton said he had to plant tobacco three times on one part of his farm
after the settlers led by Makiwa and and Sandram Kembo, Zanu PF’s youth
chairman for Mutorashanga, damaged his crop.

Kenzey Matsikwa, the farm manager, says he saw Makiwa uproot 1 132 tobacco
plants worth $4 528 on 18 November last year.

Makiwa allegedly tried to assault Ashton using a panga on 9 December 2001
when the farmer was photographing the damage he had caused.

This was reported to Magonda who did nothing about it, Ashton claimed.
On 14 January this year, two days after Zanu PF youths embarked on a widely
reported orgy of violence in Mutorashanga, Emmanuel Mbambe, a Zanu PF
councillor in Zvimba Rural District Council, and Kembo led a group armed
with a shotgun, axes and sticks, to invade his house.

They assaulted Ashton’s sons, Philip and Adam, and Philip’s girlfriend, a
South African national, Sandra Blok, and detained them for 10 hours.

The mob asked them who was supporting the MDC on the farm, slaughtered two
cows and four sheep for food, before looting the house of all goods, which
continued throughout the day.

They confiscated Philip’s mobile phone and radio when he radioed his father
for help.

The crowd attacked Ashton and damaged his vehicle, an Isuzu pick-up truck,
when he tried to rescue the children.

Two Zimasco employees Eliah Mauye Zvoushe and Gift Musaiwale, Joyce Manambi,
who works at Van Ad Clinic in Mutorashanga, and one Kangachepi, of
Raffingora, were also part of the mob, Ashton said.

He collected Magonda and four policemen but they allegedly refused to enter
the property.

Magonda allegedly said he knew who had stolen the radio and mobile phone and
would recover them. But the property was never recovered.

When two policemen, a Constable Chiobvu and one Sergeant Togara, eventually
ventured on the farm some of the youths were still looting property in the
house, Philip said.

Ashton said: “This court will understand why I have concluded the police in
Mutorashanga are involved in the whole exercise and it explains why the
officer-in-charge turns a blind eye to what are clearly criminal

His children were threatened with death if they did not leave the farm the
next day. This led to the family’s relocation to Harare, he said.

Others cited as respondents in Ashton’s application are Mbambe, Kembo,
Musaiwale, Zvoushe, Manambi, Kangachepi, Chihuni, Zanu PF’s chairman in
Mutorashanga, Chinahota, the headmaster of Mutorashanga Secondary School,
and Dambudza, a retired schoolteacher.

Magonda and Makiwa accused Ashton of ploughing down a maize crop grown by
settlers, including Makiwa, who were allocated land by a land distribution
committee so he could grow his tobacco.

Magonda said the alleged assault by Makiwa on Ashton was attended to, but
the farmer declined to have charges pressed against the sergeant.

Makiwa denied assaulting Ashton nor uprooting his tobacco, but in turn
accused him of filming his house.

Magonda said he had entered the farm after the mob attacked and left two
officers to monitor the situation.

Ashton took his property in a removals truck to Harare, after giving some of
it to other farmers and locals in the area, he said.

Property recovered by the police was still at Mutorashanga police station,
he said.

He had merely assured Ashton he would try his best to recover the mobile
phone and radio and investigations were ongoing, Magonda said.

The stocktheft case was also being investigated.

Ashton says he was unlawfully dispossessed of his farm, where he was growing
45 hectares of tobacco, 30 hectares of mangoes for export, and ran a cattle

His farm was occupied by about 150 illegal settlers in March 2000, a month
after the start of the government-sanctioned countrywide farm invasions
spearheaded by war veterans and Zanu PF supporters.

The intruders axed 124 irrigation pipes and slashed or burnt 46km of drip
tape, worth about $6 million at the official exchange rate in November 2001,
among other numerous acts.

Ashton said he informed, among others, Vice-President Joseph Msika of these
incidents, but got no response.

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Business Day

Nigeria, SA broker talks in Zimbabwe

MDC, Zanu (PF) agree to name task teams to participate in negotiations
ZIMBABWE's two main rival political parties have quietly entered into
low-key talks brokered by President Thabo Mbeki and his Nigerian
counterpart, Olusegun Obasanjo.

This is despite reports of escalating violence against opposition supporters
in the wake of the recent presidential election in Zimbabwe, condemned as
flawed by most international observers.

Mbeki and Obasanjo fought hard to stave off international sanctions against
Zimbabwe, although they did succumb to pressure for the country to be
suspended from the Commonwealth.

Now they have wasted no time appointing personal envoys to facilitate the
secret talks, which observers say would map a way forward on issues such as
shared governance, reconciliation and economic reconstruction.

Mbeki's envoy is African National Congress (ANC) secretarygeneral Kgalema
Motlanthe. Obasanjo has named respected academic and diplomat Adebayo
Adedeji as his representative.

It emerged this weekend that the pair had already held highlevel talks with
Zanu (PF) and the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC).

Motlanthe confirmed yesterday that the preliminary talks, which took place
last week amid signs of increased political polarisation within Zimbabwe,
had resulted in the two sides agreeing to name five-member task teams to
participate in negotiations.

Attempts to obtain comment from the Zimbabwean parties proved fruitless, but
it is understood that the MDC's team will be headed by Welshman Ncube, its
secretary-general and the man charged with treason for allegedly plotting to
kill President Robert Mugabe. Zanu (PF)'s previous contacts with the ANC
have been led by its chairman, John Nkomo, who is also home affairs

Motlanthe, a respected trade union leader-turned-politician, returns to
Harare tomorrow for intense talks until April 10. He said that while
preliminary talks involved the top leaderships of both parties it was agreed
the two teams would exclude MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai and Mugabe.

There is no love lost between Tsvangirai and Mugabe, a factor that might
explain their exclusion at this stage of the talks.

Motlanthe was reluctant to elaborate on the details, given the sensitive
nature of the talks, but pointed out that continued political polarisation
made the talks even more urgent. It is understood the teams will meet at a
private location for discussions, facilitated by Motlanthe and Adedeji, to
work out a deal that will be sent to leadership for approval.

The disclosure of the low-key talks contrasts sharply with the hostile
rhetoric that has punctuated public remarks by both Zanu (PF) and the MDC.

Publicly, the MDC, which is refusing to acknowledge Mugabe's victory which
it claims he stole in the March 9-10 poll, is still calling for a rerun of
the elections under international supervision.

Zanu (PF), on the other hand, has increasingly appeared to be backing off
its reconciliatory gestures. Publicly it, like the MDC, denounces the idea
of a government of national unity, claiming this already exists in Zimbabwe.

Its Soviet-style politburo said at the weekend there would be no new
election and Zimbabwe would not succumb to pressure.

Though Motlanthe is representing SA and not the ANC, the party is hoping its
links with Zanu (PF) and contacts with the MDC will help thaw relations
between the bitter rivals.
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The Daily News

ZBC to probe boss

4/2/02 8:49:33 AM (GMT +2)

By Guthrie Munyuki

GIDEON Gono, the chairman of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC)
board, yesterday gave an undertaking to investigate allegations that the
corporation’s chief executive officer (CEO) engaged in a homosexual act in a
city nightclub, prompting security guards to arrest him.

Last Wednesday, Alum Mpofu, the ZBC CEO, was allegedly spotted by a guard at
Tipperary’s, a restaurant/nightclub in Fife Avenue, while in a compromising
situation with another man.

It is alleged that Mpofu was briefly detained by the guards at the

Witnesses said after his arrest Mpofu was chained to a fire hose.

The club is owned by Pearson Mbalekwa, the Member of Parliament for

“He sobbed and told Mbalekwa’s son, who was in charge at the club that
night, that he was the ZBC chief executive and a friend of his father,” said
one witness. “They called in the senior Mbalekwa to order the guards to free

She said Mbalekwa, who could not be reached for comment yesterday, had
actually sanctioned Mpofu’s immediate release to save him from further
embarrassment as other patrons jostled to see the ZBC top man in handcuffs.

The Standard newspaper reported over the weekend that Mpofu had told the
guard that he was mistaken in his conclusion that he was attempting to
perform a homosexual act on another man.

Mpofu is a close friend of Jonathan Moyo, the Minister of Information and
Publicity in President’s Mugabe’s Office.

Moyo oversees operations at ZBC and at the Zimbabwe Newspapers group. Moyo
spearheaded the restructuring exercise at ZBC which saw Mpofu assuming the
reins of power at Pockets Hill.

When he was appointed to head the corporation last July, Mpofu moved from
the South African Broadcasting Corporation, where he was the head of the
Strategic Research Unit.

Under his new management, the national broadcaster launched its Vision 30
development programme, after axing a number of long-serving members of

Mugabe is on record for denouncing homosexual tendencies. His distaste for
such activities is well documented.

Mugabe, whose re-election campaign was spearheaded by the ZBC, has in the
past described gays and lesbians as being “worse than pigs and dogs”.

If the allegations against Mpofu are proved to be true, it will be a test
case, especially for Moyo and Mugabe who have repeatedly dismissed British
Prime Minister Tony Blair’s administration in disparaging terms as a
“government of gays and lesbians”.

Yesterday Gono said an investigation of the issue was due to begin soon.

Initially he professed ignorance of the allegations against Mpofu. Later he
undertook to investigate and get back to The Daily News.

Said Gono: “As chairman of the ZBC board, I am committing myself to this
issue, but I would need to speak to the CEO to gather the facts of what
transpired on the day in question.”

He said he was out of town and had not read the newspaper article concerning
the issue. He had also been unable to get through to Mpofu on the phone.

“We will launch a full investigation into the matter,” Gono said. “I will
come back to you after speaking to him with regards to how we proceed from

He said it was not his intention to sweep the matter under the carpet, but
reiterated that it was imperative and only fair to give the Mpofu a chance
to speak to the board first.


State broadcast chief faces gay sex inquiry in Zimbabwe


HARARE, Zimbabwe, April 2 — The government plans to investigate the powerful
head of the state broadcast station on allegations of homosexuality, a
newspaper reported Tuesday.
        The inquiry was prompted by allegations Alum Mpofu, chief executive
of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corp., caused a disturbance Thursday at a
Harare nightclub after being caught ''in a compromising situation'' with a
man, the state Herald newspaper reported Tuesday.
       Mpofu has refused comment.
       President Robert Mugabe is reviled by gay activists around the world
for outlawing homosexual acts and describing same-sex partners as ''worse
than pigs and dogs.''
       The accusations against Mpofu came two years after Zimbabwe's former
ceremonial president, Canaan Banana, was jailed for committing homosexual
acts and indecent assault on members of his presidential guard in a case
that deeply embarrassed Mugabe's government.
       Information Minister Jonathan Moyo said Mpofu, a ruling party
loyalist appointed to lead the state broadcaster ahead of last month's
presidential elections, ''will be given a fair hearing and allowed time to
tell his side of the story,'' The Herald reported.
       Moyo said the broadcasters' board of directors was asked to determine
the truth behind the alleged incident at a night club owned by a ruling
party lawmaker.
       Moyo recruited Mpofu, a Zimbabwean working at the South African
Broadcasting Corp., last July to head changes at the ZBC that streamlined
its role as a government mouthpiece.
       Mugabe, declared the winner in the disputed March 9-11 presidential
election, scoffed in his campaign at homosexuality in Britain, the former
colonial power he accused of backing the opposition.
       He repeatedly said British Prime Minister Tony Blair led ''a
government of gay gangsters and lesbians'' who needed biology classes on
human reproduction.
       Moyo said Mpofu's alleged behavior was ''totally unacceptable'' from
a public official, regardless of whether a man or woman was involved.
       But Moyo also condemned homosexuality.
       ''Sexual perverts need to be told once again that homosexuality is
unnatural,'' he said. ''The only people who accept homosexuality are
liberals who think it is a way of getting votes.''

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Baltimore Sun

Mugabe vows to crush civil uprisings
Dismisses calls for rerun of presidential election
Associated Press
Originally published April 2, 2002

HARARE, Zimbabwe - President Robert G. Mugabe, declared the winner in
disputed voting last month, vowed to crush any civil uprising against his
rule and dismissed calls for a rerun of the election, state radio reported
The government will not tolerate attempts to make Zimbabwe ungovernable "by
those bent on causing chaos, especially those who did not agree" with his
election victory, Mugabe said.

"Those who want to rebel and become lawless, we will deal with them firmly,"
he said. "They think we will continue to be soft. That's gone. It's
finished. We are in a new phase, and there will be a firm government."

The radio said Mugabe was addressing a victory party Sunday in his home
district of Zvimba, 25 miles southwest of Harare.

The National Constitutional Assembly, a reform alliance that includes the
main opposition and human rights, labor and church organizations, has called
for street protests Saturday.

In weekend advertisements in independent newspapers, organizers said the
protests and a campaign of civil disobedience will go ahead in defiance of
new security laws banning political demonstrations.

The advertisements urged Zimbabweans to turn out in large numbers in the
capital and regional centers to protest elections they say were rigged
during voting and marred by political violence and intimidation against
Mugabe opponents.

Mugabe, state radio said, complained his victory "was not an easy one
because the white community and the British wanted to see him out" and
backed the opposition Movement for Democratic Change candidate Morgan

Britain, the former colonial power, and other Western countries that
criticized the election result wanted to protect the interests of their
white "kith and kin" in Zimbabwe, Mugabe said.

There would be no new election, and "no nonsense will be tolerated from any

The last protest organized by the constitutional reform group was broken up
by police Feb. 15. About 40 protesters were arrested and hundreds fled
baton-wielding riot police.

Many local and international election monitors criticized the March 9-11
election as deeply flawed and engineered to ensure a Mugabe victory.

Since the poll, Zimbabwe's 4,000 white farmers have reported an upsurge in
violence, evictions and looting of their property, which they blamed on
retribution against them by Mugabe's militants.

White farmers became targets of violence two years ago when armed militants
loyal to Mugabe began occupying their farms with tacit government approval
and demanding they be seized and redistributed to landless blacks.

The opposition accused the government of cynically exploiting the land issue
for political gain and using the farms as bases to terrorize rural
opposition supporters.

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Zimbabwe opposition says to talk with Mugabe party

HARARE, April 2 — Zimbabwe's opposition Movement for Democratic Change said
on Tuesday it would begin talks with President Robert Mugabe's ruling
ZANU-PF party after initially refusing any discussions on last month's
disputed election.
       But it said it would only discuss fresh elections under international
supervision and rejected any talks on forming a government of national
       ZANU-PF was not immediately available for comment.
       The MDC's secretary for economic affairs, Eddie Cross, said teams
from both parties would begin low-level talks under the guidance of South
Africa and Nigeria, which have been pushing for discussions on a unity
       ''We have consulted members throughout the country and they do not
want any form of government of national unity. The only thing we are willing
to talk about is fresh elections under international supervision,'' Cross
told Reuters.
       Another MDC official said the talks could begin as early as
Wednesday. Mugabe said last week there was no question of re-running the
March 9-11 poll, which was widely condemned by international observers and
Western governments as fraudulent.
       MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai, who has been charged with treason for
allegedly plotting to kill Mugabe, has repeatedly said he will not discuss
anything but fresh elections with Mugabe. Cross denied the mooted talks
indicated a policy change.
       ''The MDC has not changed its position regarding talks with ZANU. Our
position is clear -- we regard the election as being fraudulent and we do
not recognise the election of Mugabe as president of Zimbabwe,'' Cross said.
       In a preliminary report on the poll last week, the MDC charged that
Mugabe had only beaten Tsvangirai after inflating voter turnout in rural
areas, stuffing ballot boxes and locking out voters in the opposition's
urban strongholds.
       Zimbabwe was suspended from the Commonwealth for a year on March 19
after the group's election observers accused Mugabe of electoral fraud.
       The Zimbabwean government dismisses the fraud accusations, saying
they are being pushed by Western powers who want to see Mugabe ousted
because he is seizing white-owned farms for landless blacks.

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Independent - (UK)

Zimbabwe crisis talks open today helped by South Africa and Nigeria
By Basildon Peta and Karen MacGregor
03 April 2002

Negotiations between Zimbabwe's rival political parties – brokered by South
Africa and Nigeria to end the crisis in the country – are underway.

A top South African official is due in Harare today to get talks going.

The leader of the opposition party, the Movement for Democratic Change
(MDC), Morgan Tsvangirai, told The Independent yesterday that his party had
agreed to meet with Zanu-PF as part of plans by the Commonwealth "troika" of
the South African President, Thabo Mbeki; Nigeria's Olusegun Obasanjo, and
the Australian Prime Minister, John Howard, to bring the two sides together.

But he warned that tough remarks made by President Robert Mugabe at the
weekend, castigating Britain and the MDC, had already put the talks in
jeopardy, and urged South Africa and Nigeria to secure a public commitment
to the talks from Mr Mugabe.

Mr Tsvangirai said: "If there is no commitment from us as leaders then we
might as well not start the talks." He said his party's main agenda for the
talks would be a re-run of last month's presidential election.

"The critical question is restoration of legitimacy to government and we
have to go back to the people," he said. He again rejected the idea of
joining a government of national unity with Mr Mugabe.

He said that if Mr Mugabe did not want an immediate re-run of the elections,
he should allow an international commission of inquiry to investigate the
entire electoral process.

Mr Mbeki's envoy is the secretary general of the African National Congress,
Kgalema Motlanthe, while Mr Obasanjo's is an academic and diplomat, Adebayo
Adedeji. The MDC delegation looks set to be led by its secretary general,
Welshman Ncube. Mr Ncube is, with Mr Tsvangirai, facing treason charges for
allegedly plotting to kill Mr Mugabe. Zanu-PF's team seems likely to be led
by its chairman and home affairs minister, John Nkomo.

The closed talks between Zanu-PF and the MDC will exclude both leaders since
the animosity between them appears to be a stumbling block. Mr Tsvangirai
refused to be drawn on a date for the start of the talks, which have become
crucial as violence increases after a presidential poll widely condemned as

The Human Rights Forum, an alliance of civic, church and rights groups, said
yesterday that 16 people died in political violence in the first half of
March. Of those killed, 12 were opposition supporters, five of them MDC
polling agents. One was a Zanu-PF militant and three were of unknown

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CAPS Holdings Incurs $210 Million Loss


April 2, 2002
Posted to the web April 2, 2002

Business Reporter

PHARMACEUTICAL company CAPS Holdings Limited has incurred a $210 million loss in the 12 months to last December amid revelations that the group suffered extensive financial irregularities at one of its operating arms, Geddes Limited.

Initial findings reveal that a senior officer at Geddes Limited did not do his work properly, resulting in massive financial damage to the pharmaceutical group.

Several foreign creditors were not included on the Geddes' balance sheet, which indicates the financial health of the company.

The valuation of Geddes' stock was also in a mess.

All this was done without the knowledge of the group's board of directors.

Business Herald could not immediately establish what sort of action has been taken against the senior officer.

CAPS Holdings has however, suffered high exchange rate losses because of the division's failure to bring significant foreign liabilities to book.

The group approved the establishment of a temporary facility secured against Geddes' debtor for the purpose of paying foreign creditors.

This was seen as a way towards reducing the group's exposure, particularly in view of the volatile exchange rates.

"However, without authority, a senior officer of the company took it upon himself to fully draw the facility down.

"The manner in which this was done has been subject to extensive investigations. Another bank facility was also drawn down. In both cases, normal banking controls on which the company would rely failed to work.

"The investigations have revealed that several foreign creditors were omitted from the balance sheet in 2000, in addition to other irregularities relating to the valuation of stock.

"These findings are the source of the adjustments to prior year figures. It became apparent that information submitted to the Geddes board did not represent a true picture," said the group in a statement accompanying their poor results for the year ending December last year.

CAPS issued a cautionary statement early in the year indicating that its performance would be affected by financial irregularities at Geddes.

The group said it has put in place measures to ensure that there is no recurrence of this situation within the group.

In its financial statements, the group avoided the use of figures to indicate the actual performance of each division.

The use of percentages made it difficult to assess how each of CAPS' eight divisions contributed to the group's turnover and profits.

CAPS Holding runs two manufacturing units namely CAPS Rallis and Autosterile.

It also has six companies under its armpit within the trading portfolio namely Geddes, Prohealth Information Solutions, QV Pharmacies, CAPS Trading Botswana, CAPS Pharmaceuticals and Malawi Pharmacies.

Most of these trading units performed poorly during the 12 months.

Despite the growth in turnover from about $2 billion in 2000 to about $3,8 billion last year, exports were down in terms of units sold.

The group failed to fulfil orders worth R1,5 million in the South African market because of logistical constraints.

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Intelligence reports shed new doubt on Mugabe victory: IHT
PARIS, April 2 AFP|Published: Wednesday April 3, 2:09 AM

Intelligence reports have cast new doubt on the legitimacy of Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's re-election last month, the International Herald Tribune reported today.

Western officials who have interviewed reliable sources inside Zimbabwe, said the ruling party manipulated the results on the eve of the March 13 announcement of Mugabe's victory by a wide margin over opposition challenger Morgan Tsvangirai, the paper said.

Officials who have seen detailed intelligence reports - which have been shared with Britain, Australia, other Commonwealth governments and the United States - said that ruling party officials realised at the last minute that Mugabe was in danger of losing to Tsvangirai by 200,000 to 300,000 votes.

They allegedly added tens of thousands of names to Mugabe's total before the ballots were sent for a final count.

During the counting period, there was a sudden jump in the total votes cast, from 2.4 million to 2.9 million, according to RW Johnson, who covered the March 9-11 vote for a British newspaper, the IHT reported.

Johnson told the IHT yesterday by telephone from South Africa that the sudden increase was "totally unexplained" at the time, and was "bigger than the president's winning margin".

The final total of votes cast was just over three million.

Mugabe's party, the Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), has rejected international criticism and calls for fresh polls insisting that the vote was free and fair.

The election has been criticised by the United States, the European Union and the Commonwealth, which has suspended Zimbabwe's membership for one year.

Tsvangirai has demanded fresh elections, charging that Mugabe's re-election was "massively rigged" and citing widespread pre-election violence targeting his supporters.

South Africa and Nigeria had defended Zimbabwe at a Commonwealth summit ahead of the election, but backed the decision for the one-year suspension in the wake of a damning report by the Commonwealth observer mission to the polls.

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Businessman Allegedly Tricks Milling Company

The Daily News (Harare)

April 2, 2002
Posted to the web April 2, 2002

Fanuel Jongwe

CHARLES Barke Chombo, a Harare businessman, allegedly tricked a Harare milling company into selling him 650 metric tonnes of maize-meal after he forged a fax order pretending he was an army officer serving in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Chombo, 42, the managing director of Highdon Investments based in Greendale, was arrested on Tuesday last week as he negotiated with officials at the Zimbabwe National Army base in Msasa for the release of the maize-meal.

The maize-meal had been delivered to the base by Blue Ribbon Foods.

Harare magistrate Billiard Musakwa last Thursday remanded him on $40 000 bail to 11 April on a charge of fraud or breaching the Grain Marketing Board Act.

Prosecutor Allan Mabande said Chombo lied to Blue Ribbon Foods that the army had placed an order for 650 metric tonnes of maize-meal. To support his claim, Chombo allegedly presented the fax which was in French purporting it had been sanctioned by an army official in the DRC.

Blue Ribbon Foods fell for the trick and approved the order. Chombo allegedly paid $3 243 000 in advance for 100 metric tonnes of maize-meal.

He promised to pay for the remaining 550 metric tonnes at a later date.

On 22 March, he allegedly diverted a consignment of 20 metric tonnes of maize-meal which was being delivered to the Msasa army base on the strength of the fake fax.

On Monday last week, Blue Ribbon Foods delivered the second consignment to the army base.

Officials at the base were shocked at the arrival of the maize-meal as they had not ordered it because all the procurement is undertaken by the army ordinance at KGVI Barracks.

They held onto the consignment. Chombo was arrested when he allegedly followed up on the delivery.

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Wankie Colliery's After-Tax Profit Increases to $284,6m

The Daily News (Harare)

April 2, 2002
Posted to the web April 2, 2002

Business Reporter

WANKIE Colliery Company Limited has reported an increase in after-tax profit from $275,1 million the previous year to $284,6 million. The results are for the year ended 31 December 2001.

During 2001, turnover rose from $3,3 billion in 2000 to $4,8 billion, while basic earnings per share rose from 162 cents to 168 cents. The company said: "Demand for coal and coke remained firm throughout the year in both the domestic and export markets.

Although the company did not manage to meet this demand fully, overall sales tonnages improved when compared with the previous year." At 3,8 million tonnes, total coal sales for the year were 13 percent higher than the previous year.

As a result of transport constraints coal sales from remained static at about 1,4 million tonnes. The company said: "The supply of railway wagons from the National Railways of Zimbabwe declined significantly during the second half of the year. As a result, customers were encouraged to continue using road transport to alleviate this problem."

HPS coal sales to the Zimbabwe Power Company rose by 23 percent to 2,3 million tonnes. The company said: "Demand levels improved progressively and remained high particularly during the second half as a result of operational efficiencies at the Hwange Power Station." However, transport constrains further hampered the sale of coke to the Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company and sales declined by 40 percent to 245 822 tonnes.

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