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- may peace, truth and justice prevail.

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Daily Mirror, Zimbabwe

Mash Central braces for farm evictions

The Daily Mirror Reporter
issue date :2005-Jan-17

MASHONALAND Central Province is bracing for farm evictions as a team headed
by Deputy Police Commissioner Godwin Matanga, which is tasked with enforcing
the government's one-man one farm policy has finally descended on the area.
Ephraim Masawi, the Mashonaland Central Governor, yesterday told The Daily
Mirror that the committee had already carried out a probe into land
ownership in an attempt to flush out multiple farm owners.
The team has moved in barely a fortnight after Matanga dismissed another one
that had earlier moved into the area as fake.
So far the eviction committee has been to Mashonaland West, Masvingo and
some parts of Matabeleland, where a number of high ranking government and
Zanu PF officials have been barred from some properties on the grounds that
they have more than the stipulated one farm.
In an interview, Masawi said: " First of all, they found problematic areas,
and they are now working on their findings.
"It's not my committee, it's independent and I cannot comment on its work.
However, it is answerable to Matanga (Deputy Police Commissioner) and only
him can comment on its work"
Asked to comment on the team said to be fake, Masawi said he was not in a
position to comment, as he did not know the people who were behind it.
No further information on the work of the team could be obtained, as Matanga
refused to comment.

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Daily Mirror, Zimbabwe

MIC to monitor journalism training

The Daily Mirror Reporter
issue date :2005-Jan-17

THE Media and Information Commission (MIC) has moved into private training
institutions to monitor the quality of delivery and ensure the
standardisation of the institutions' curricula.
This is a new development for the private journalism schools dotted around
the country.
In the past, government has concentrated on monitoring training offered by
public institutions such as the Harare Polytechnic, the Midlands State
University and the Zimbabwe Open University.
Sources in private colleges have indicated that all journalism departments
have been asked by the MIC to submit their syllabuses.
The decision by the MIC to put private colleges under surveillance is part
of the legal provisions enshrined under the controversial Access to
Information and Protection of Privacy Act (AIPPA).
Section 43 of the Act talks about the establishment of a fund for, among
other objectives,
the assistance of training programmes.
Section 44 (a) reads: "The objects of the fund shall be the standardisation
of mass media services and the maintenance of high standards of quality in
the provision of such services."
The Daily Mirror understands that lecturers at a key private training centre
have been asked to resubmit their updated CVs as jittery administrators
desperately try to prepare their journalism departments before a possible
inspection by the MIC.
Private colleges offering journalism courses in Zimbabwe include the Harare
based Christian College of Southern Africa (CCOSA), Ranch House College,
UMAA Institute in Marondera and the Career Management Centre
and Foundation College in Bulawayo.
Some editors have welcomed the move since the quality of journalism training
has deteriorated over the years.
Some students coming for attachment from some universities do not even know
how to use a computer, let alone construct a news article.
The editors would rather have students coming to sharpen their writing
skills, as opposed to teaching the students the basics of journalism.
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Daily Mirror, Zimbabwe

Parishioner arrested after anti-Kunonga demo

The Daily Mirror Reporter
issue date :2005-Jan-17

POLICE yesterday picked up an Anglican parishioner for leading a
demonstration against Harare diocese Bishop Norbert Kunonga at St Mary's
Anglican Cathedral.
The parishioner, only identified, as Murehwa is an organiser at the Anglican
Church's St Francis of Assisi parish in Glen Norah.
Mass has been disrupted for the past three weeks at the parish following the
suspension of the resident priest, Paul Gweshe, in December.
Before the demonstration, a church warden Bernard Nengomasha told
parishioners that their hope to get a priest had been fruitless. He further
asked fellow church members to proceed with morning prayers only (Martins)
and go back home.
He said: "Again, our hopes to get a priest this Sunday were in vain.
However, we can proceed with Martins and go back home."
However, parishioners refused to comply with Nengomasha's request. Instead,
they decided to go to the cathedral-the Harare diocese's headquarters- to
force Kunonga into dialogue.
On arrival at the cathedral, the parishioners sang songs against Kunonga,
waving placards with messages denouncing him, the diocese's vicar general,
Harry Rinashe, and Gwese's proposed  successor only identified as Gwedegwe.
They tried to disrupt a church service but were denied entry by some senior
church members at the parish, who argued that Kunonga was not present and
the right place to stage their demonstration was the headquarters' offices
just behind the church building.
 "We have exhausted all the channels. Why is he refusing to talk to us?
Bishop varikutiza hwai dzavo (The Bishop is running away from his flock),"
said one angry parishioner who spoke on condition of anonymity.
The parishioners only dispersed after police intervention. The police said
under the Public Order and Security Act (Posa), the parishioners had no
right to demonstrate without police clearance.
When Kunonga was reached for comment, he said: "Put down your phone. Don't
waste your time," before hanging up.
Gwese, who has since been transferred to Mhondoro-Ngezi, was suspended in
December for allegedly providing the local legislator, Priscilla
Misihairabwi- Mushonga a platform in church during thanksgiving.
Kunonga has had problems with other parishes in Chitungwiza, Mabvuku-Tafara,
Banket and Mufakose.

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Daily Mirror, Zimbabwe

Ball in Sadc court, says MDC

The Daily Mirror Reporter
issue date :2005-Jan-17

THE MDC says the ball is now in the court of Sadc governments to ensure
President Robert Mugabe implements the regional body's principles guiding
free and fair elections.
In an interview with The Daily Mirror at the weekend, shadow foreign
minister Priscilla Misihairabwi-Mushonga said Morgan Tsvangirai's trip to
Zambia last Sunday was routine briefing of regional leaders on the situation
in the country ahead of the general elections just two months away.
Misihairambwi-Mushonga said Tsvangirai's visit also served as a reminder to
Zambian President Levy Mwanawasa and his regional colleagues that their
influence could force President Mugabe's government to adhere to Sadc's
electoral ethics.
 Despite the uncertainty surrounding the MDC's participation in the March
polls, Misihairabwi-Mushonga pointed out that Mwanawasa had advised the
opposition party to contest the elections.
She said pressure was now on Mwanawasa and other regional leaders to ensure
that Harare complied with the Sadc principles before the MDC could
participate in the poll.
On Tsvangirai's meeting with Mwanawasa, Misihairabwi-Mushonga said: "There
wasn't any difference from what other Sadc leaders have said before. The
President of MDC gave the Zambian leader an update on the situation in
Zimbabwe regarding the implementation of Sadc principles. What is now left
is for the Sadc leaders to use their influence."
 Misihairabwi-Mushonga pointed out that President Mwanawasa had invited
Tsvangirai to Lusaka.
"It was the Zambian leader who invited the MDC leader for an update and that
is what he got. It's now left to Mwanawasa and his counterparts in the
region to ensure that Zimbabwe implements the Sadc guidelines," she said.
She stressed that Sadc leaders wanted the MDC to participate in the
election, as a boycott would exacerbate problems in Zimbabwe.
 "In fact, the MDC is happy with the pressure from Sadc to participate as
this in turn puts pressure on the region to ensure that the government of
Zimbabwe implements the principles.
"The MDC does not want to boycott the election and we are in total agreement
with what Sadc leaders are saying. Political parties are formed not to
boycott elections. What we are simply saying to the government is: create a
free and fair environment before we can participate," she said.
In a bid to comply with the Sadc guiding principles, the Zimbabwean
government has since introduced changes, including holding elections in one
day, use of translucent boxes and the creation of an independent electoral
commission.The Government, however, is yet to open the airwaves to
opposition political parties, among other complaints by the opposition.

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Daily Mirror, Zimbabwe

Minister goes berserk

Mirror Reporters
issue date :2005-Jan-17

10 MPs lose primary elections

CABINET minister Paul Mangwana, who is facing a stiff challenge from former
Zupco boss Bright Matonga in Kadoma East constituency, allegedly went
berserk on Saturday and burnt some ballot papers during the on going Zanu PF
primary elections.
Sources said Mangwana, who is the Minister of Public Service, Labour and
Social Welfare, had apparently concluded that the odds were staked against
him and decided to turn on the papers.
In Chivi North, the Minister of Industry and International Trade, Samuel
Mumbengegwi, yesterday became the first high-profile politician to lose his
seat in the on-going primary elections. He was beaten by little known Enita
Mumbengegwi, a former public service commissioner and deputy chairman of the
Local Government Board, polled 1 633 votes to Muzariri's 6 443.
Results released yesterday also showed that at least 10 sitting Members of
Parliament had also lost their right to represent the party in this year's
general elections.
Mashonaland West acting provincial chairperson, John Mafa last night
confirmed that Mangwana had destroyed some ballot papers, but would not be
drawn into saying much because he was yet to receive a report on the issue.
He was also afraid that he might appear biased if he said much over the
alleged incident.
" I have been notified of the incident, but I am yet to get a report on
everything that transpired. Obviously that incident had a negative impact on
the polls. The exercise was supposed to end on Saturday, but it will spill
to tomorrow ( today), which shows that something is wrong," said Mafa, who
lost the Mhondoro primary elections to Cottco boss Sylvester Nguni.
Mafa refused to say much on the incident, arguing that he might appear
biased, as polling was still ongoing.
Efforts to contact Mangwana were fruitless last night.
In Mashonaland West, two sitting MPs Phone Madiro and Ishmael Mutema of
Hurungwe West and Kadoma Central lost the right to represent their
constituencies to Cecilia Gwachiwa and Muduvuri Jamayi respectively.
In the newly created Manyame constituency, Patrick Zhuwao clinched the seat
after Bybit Tsomondo withdrew at the last minute. Zhuwao, who is President
Robert Mugabe's nephew, is son to the President's sister, Sabina.
Minister of State for Policy Implementation Webster Shamu maintained his
edge over Parliament Deputy Speaker Edna Madzongwe in Chegutu. The two had
also vied for the same seat for the current Parliament, but Madzongwe had
opted out of the race.
In the Midlands, provincial chairman Jason Machaya said so far two sitting
MPs -Pearson Mbalekwa and Innocent Chikiyi of Zvishavane and Chirumanzu
respectively - lost their seats to Obert Matshalaga and Edwin Muguti.
He said Thomas Ndebele clinched the Silobela vote, while counting was still
going on in Gokwe North and Central, Mberengwa West and Vungu.
The Minister of Environment and Tourism, Francis Nhema retained his
Shurungwi constituency.
Machaya added that in Gokwe-Chireya, the exercise would spill into the
coming few days due to a number of factors.
" Polling did not take place at some stations due to a combination of
factors such as heavy rains and the fact that this is a remote area," he
added. In Mashonaland Central, provincial chairman, Chen Chimutengwende said
in the four contested seats two sitting MPs - Nobbie
Dzinzi (Muzarabani) and Paul Mazikana (Guruve North) - had lost the right to
contest the general elections on a Zanu PF ticket.
He said two women - Sandra Machirori and Sabina Zinyemba -won primaries in
Rushinga and Mazowe West respectively.
In Manicaland, provincial governor, Michael Nyambuya won in Mutasa North,
while agriculture Minister Joseph Made ousted legislator Gibson Munyoro in
Makoni West.
Ellen Gwaradzimba and Freddy Kanzama won in Mutare North and South
respectively, while Enoch Porusingazi won in Chipinge South.
In Nyanga, Paul Kadzima won.
In Harare province, Harare North and South went to Nyasha Chikwinya and a
Nyanhongo respectively.
Dzivaresekwa went to Tichapondwa Muchada, Mufakose to Sabina Thembani,
Kuwadzana to David Mutasa and Glen Norah to Victoria Chitepo.
In Masvingo Province, Chiredzi North MP Elliot Chauke lost to a C Pote,
while Zaka East MP and Deputy Minister of Water Resources and Infrastructure
Development, Tinos Rusere defeated retired Major Alex Mudavanhu.
MPs Jefta Chindanya and Walter Mutsauri also lost their Zaka West and Bikita
East constituencies, while Charles Majange and Aaron Baloyi of Chivi South
and Chiredzi South won in their respective constituencies.
In Mashonaland East, voting ended on Saturday in the only constituency,
which went for primaries, Murehwa North, where the Minister of Health and
Child Welfare, David Parirenyatwa defeated the incumbent MP Victor Chitongo.
The party's chairman of the national elections directorate, Elliot Manyika,
said heavy rains had hindered the smooth running of the elections.
He added that his directorate was considering State assistance to get to
remote areas and would ask for helicopters and other forms of help to ensure
that the elections were concluded.
"We have so far managed to hold elections in 42 constituencies throughout
the country and we are left with 14 constituencies where counting and
verification is still going on. In some of the constituencies, the vote
counting and verification has been completed, but we have been facing
communication problems as voting teams in various constituencies cannot
communicate with their command centres because of the remoteness of these,"
he said.
There were also allegations of vote rigging and favouritism, and Manyika
said the doors would be open for any appeals by losing candidates.

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Daily News online edition

            ANC backs MDC*s right to hold meetings

            Date: 17-Jan, 2005

            JOHANNESBURG - The African National Congress of South Africa
(ANC) says Zimbabwe's main opposition party, the Movement for Democratic
Change (MDC) must be allowed to hold public meetings if this year's
parliamentary elections are to be declared free and fair.

            ANC secretary-general, Kgalema Motlanthe told journalists after
the party's national executive committee meeting that he was worried that
the MDC still required permission from the police to hold public meetings.

            "We have been concerned about several things. The MDC is a party
that is represented in parliament and it controls several municipalities.
This position impairs their ability to interact with their constituencies.

            "Over the years we have been continually saying to them that you
cannot have a properly registered party restricted in this way," he said.

            Motlanthe said his party would continue to talk to the ruling
Zanu PF over the MDC's concerns. President Thabo Mbeki's ANC and government
have in the past come under fire over their quiet diplomacy and failure to
condemn the ruling Zanu PF government's dictatorial and undemocratic
practices in Zimbabwe.

            The MDC has threatened to boycott the March election if Mugabe
does not conform to the Southern African Development Community guidelines
and principles for free and fair elections.
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Daily News online edition

      Allow MDC to campaign freely or election will be a farce

      Date: 17-Jan, 2005

      We commend the position taken by the African National Congress of
South Africa, (ANC) on the need for the MDC to be allowed to hold political
meetings inside Zimbabwe with its millions of supporters in the campaign for
the March parliamentary elections.

      Speaking in South Africa, the ANC secretary-general Kgalena Motlanthe
said if the Harare administration bars the MDC from holding meetings, then
the March election would not be seen as free and fair.

      At the moment, the playing field is skewed against the MDC and unless
President Mugabe and his Zanu PF do not abide by the guidelines agreed by
the SADC heads of state including Mugabe in Mauritius last year, the
election will be nothing but a farce.

      Nearly all the issues raised by the MDC are valid. They include the
need for a new voters' roll, access to the public media including radio and
television and the need for an independent election supervisory commission
whose members are not handpicked by the government.

      The ANC is a lone voice. There should be more voices from within the
SADC region and beyond in order for Mugabe to yield to a democratic

      The SADC region will not enjoy full democratic rule unless there is
genuine change in Zimbabwe.
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Daily News online edition

      Zimbabwe to hog limelight at Commonwealth press meeting

      Date: 17-Jan, 2005

      ZIMBABWE will feature prominently at the Commonwealth Press Union
biennial conference to be held in Sydney, Australia next month.

      One of the issues on the agenda of the meeting is Reconstruction and
rehabilitation - the role of the media.

      Geoff Hill, a freelance journalist and author who is based in South
Arica but has worked in Zimbabwe, will tackle this topic which will be
discussed by the delegates.

      The conference, which will run from 23 to 25 February, will come soon
after the three day sixth editors' forum at the same venue. Zimbabwe will
not be officially represented at the conference after it was suspended from
the English-speaking body which is based in London.

      Other topics to be covered at the Sydney conference include the
erosion of press freedom, privacy and the press the safety of journalists in
their day to day operations.

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Daily News online edition

      Teachers forced to undergo military training

      Date: 17-Jan, 2005

      HARARE - Violence against school teachers is set to intensify in rural
areas ahead of the March parliamentary election as it emerged recently that
the government had approved the forced military training of senior school
teachers, according to highly placed officials within the Ministry of
Education, Sport and Culture in Manicaland.

      The trained teachers, the officials said, would be working as spies on
behalf of the ruling party in their respective schools and whip all
dissenting teachers into line.

      The officials said nearly 50 school teachers, among them headmasters,
deputy headmasters and senior teachers have been receiving military training
at National Youth Service Training Centres around the country.

      "The majority of selected teachers in Manicaland are being trained at
Mushagashe Training Centre in Masvingo Province," the official said.

      "They have been receiving their training, disguised as orientation
training since December 12 and will complete their training a fortnight
after schools open. We suspect those trained teachers would monitor the
movements of other teachers on the political field."

      The government and Zanu PF have targeted teachers in rural areas for
reprisals for their alleged "bad" influence on villagers to support the
opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC).

      Violence against rural school teachers intensified ahead of the June
2000 parliamentary and March 2002 presidential election. Hundreds of them
fled from rampaging Zanu PF militants who attacked them and burnt down their
property as punishment for supporting the MDC.

      The official, said at one of the schools, Zvenyika Mabvudzi, the
headmaster at Crosdale Secondary School and Rhoda Nyamurundira, the senior
teacher at the same school had been posted to Mushagashe for National Youth
Service Training Center, under the auspices of the newly founded Teachers
Union of Zimbabwe (TUZ), strongly linked to the ruling Zanu PF.

      In an interview early this week, Daniel Chigudu, the chairman of the
TUZ in Nyanga District said his organisation had sought the authority of the
Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture to have two teachers from each
school in Manicaland to undergo national youth training to entrench
patriotism among teachers.

      "All the teachers who are going to take part in the election in March
have to be true patriots so that we do not have sell-outs, being involved in
the voting process," Chigudu said. "Soon it would be mandatory that teachers
interested in participating in national programmes like census, vote
counting be presided over by teachers who are members of TUZ."

      Aeneas Chigwedere, the Minister of Education, Sport and Culture was
not available for comment. Attempts to get comment from officials in his
office were also fruitless.

      Raymond Majongwe, the president of the Progressive Teachers Union of
Zimbabwe (PTUZ) was also unavailable for comment. His mobile went

      An official in the PTUZ office who refused to be named said: "Any
attempts by the government to legitimize the Zanu PF TUZ would be doomed.
The PTUZ has maintained that no teacher should undergo this military
training for whatever reason."

      In separate interviews, teachers in Makoni and Nyanga districts said
they had been forced to become members of the TUZ by senior government
officials with the backing of agents of the Central Intelligence
Organisation (CIO).

      The teachers, who refused to be identified said the TUZ was launched
in June 2004 at a meeting held at a Nyanga hotel, attended by CIO heads in

      Sources said the school headmasters, who led the recruitment drive on
behalf of TUZ, warned teachers against continued support for the PTUZ and
the Zimbabwe Teachers Association (ZIMTA), both accused of being
confrontational with government.

      A teacher at Nyamhuka Secondary School said: "We have been told that
we needed the TUZ for our safety ahead of the parliamentary election. Our
headmaster made it clear that we would ignore his advice on our own peril.
We have become TUZ members for security reasons."

      Teachers pay $1 000 as joining fee and thereafter $3 000 in monthly
subscriptions to TUZ.
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      Iranian president kicks off visit to Zimbabwe 2005-01-18 02:54:04

          HARARE, Jan. 17 (Xinhuanet) -- Iranian President Seyeed Mohammed
Khatami arrived in Zimbabwe on Monday on a three-day official visit aimed at
bolstering diplomatic ties between the two countries.

          He was met at the Harare International airport by his Zimbabwean
counterpart, Robert Mugabe. The two were scheduled to hold bilateral talks

          Before leaving on Wednesday, the two leaders are expected to sign
bilateral agreements in various sectors of the economy. The two countries
already have co-operation agreements in the fields of agriculture and

          Zimbabwe has received grants from Iran for the development of its
agriculture sector, and is also getting assistance in the revamping of
equipment at the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Holdings.

          The visit by the Iranian leader comes at a time when Zimbabwe has
adopted a "look East policy" that is geared towards solidifying relations
with countries in the Far East and Asia following the straining of relations
with the west. Enditem
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From: "Trudy Stevenson"
Sent: Monday, January 17, 2005 5:07 PM
Subject: Harare North Voters Roll Inspection - new facility

Constituents in Harare North are now able to check their name on the new
voters roll at my Parliamentary office at Mt Pleasant Hall from 8.30 am -
5pm Monday to Friday (closed lunchtime 1-2 pm) or by telephoning my PA,
Beauty, on 304289.
Please do check - and register at an Insepction Centre if necessary (you
cannot register at my office- sorry!)

Trudy Stevenson MP
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The Monitor, Uganda

Museveni, Mugabe in air link talks
By Grace Matsiko
Jan 18, 2005

      KAMPALA - Presidents Yoweri Museveni and Robert Mugabe have initiated
an agreement opening direct airlinks between Entebbe international airport
and Harare.

      "Relations between Uganda and Zimbabwe have greatly improved after the
DRC conflict. It is in this spirit that our President and President Mugabe
want direct links between the two countries" a State House official said.

      A Zimbabwean delegation held a three-day meeting with the Ugandan
officials at Grand Imperial Hotel in Kampala as a follow up of the
discussion between Museveni and Mugabe, an official said yesterday. The
meeting ended on Saturday.

      He said, a Ugandan delegation of experts led by the Ministry of Works,
Transport and Communications MOWTC) director of transport, Mr Grace Itazi,
met the Zimbabwean delegation in Kampala to initial Museveni-Mugabe proposal
of direct commercial links between each other's capital.

      Acting Works Minister, Mr Michael Werikhe, was reported attending a
meeting at the ministry headquarters in Kampala.
      Mr Itazi confirmed the meeting with Zimbabweans, but declined to give
      "For avoidance of misinforming the public we shall write a statement
and give it to the media," Itazi said.

      He did not say when the statement would be ready.
      But a source close to the negotiations said that the two teams
initialed an agreement and a Memorandum of Understanding putting in place
the commercial airlinks.

      Ugandans or Zimbabweans wishing to travel to each other's country
would pass through Nairobi, Kenya for connecting flights.
      The development comes at the time Zimbabwe is facing criticism and
isolation from the international community as a result of land reforms by
President Mugabe.

      President Museveni is among the few African leaders that have stood in
support of Mugabe amidst harangues from his former Western allies, mainly
Britain, accusing him of dictatorship.
      Zimbabwe and Uganda have until 2002 been rivals as a result of the
conflict in the DRC.

      Zimbabwe backed by the DRC government at the time Uganda deployed its
forces in the vast African nation to flush out remnants of Allied Democratic
Forces (ADF) rebels.

      Ugandan forces captured several Zimbabwean soldiers during the combat
but later handed them over to the International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) for repatriation back to Harare.
      But Museveni recently said the misunderstandings had been ironed out.
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Zimbabwe's Ruling Party 'Old Guard' Returns to Prominence By Peta

As Zimbabwe's Zanu PF nears the end of its primary elections for the
national poll expected in March, Peta Thornycroft reports that the ruling
party has been through a turbulent period.

Political analysts say that Zanu PF's so-called old guard, the party leaders
during the struggle for independence, have returned to political prominence.

They say most of the newer and younger party leaders who entered politics in
the elections of 2000 have been abandoned by Zanu PF. Among the most
prominent to be sidelined are justice minister Patrick Chinamasa and
information minister Jonathan Moyo.

One candidate who was not sidelined is agriculture minister Joseph Made.
Analysts are surprised he is being allowed to stand for election in the
primaries because he has been criticized by some senior leaders in Zanu PF
and many government economists for his inaccurate Zimbabwe crop forecasts.

More women will stand for national elections. A a deliberate policy move by
Zanu PF to get more women in the legislature.

There are still a small number of districts that have not finished electing
party candidates. Among them is Mr. Moyo's district. Zanu PF says that
district, and several others in the same Matabeleland province in southern
Zimbabwe will be finalized soon.

New laws to govern Zimbabwe's elections were passed by parliament late last
year and were signed into law last week by President Robert Mugabe.

The opposition Movement for Democratic Change says none of the new laws
comply with regional electoral principles that Mr. Mugabe and other southern
Africa leaders signed last August.
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Call for independent review of voters' roll

[ This report does not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations]

JOHANNESBURG, 17 Jan 2005 (IRIN) - Zimbabwean opposition parties and civic
groups have warned that unless the voters' roll is reviewed by an
independent body, the credibility of the March general elections could be
called into question.

The voters' roll was opened for inspection on Monday until 30 January.
Zimbabwe has 5,658,637 eligible voters, according to the registrar-general's

In an interview with IRIN, Lovemore Madhuku, chairman of the pro-democracy
NGO, National Constitutional Assembly, contended that the roll would be no
different from the one used in the 2002 presidential elections, which were
condemned as flawed by most western observers.

"The roll is in shambles: over the years the registrar-general's office has
added more names but not totally reformed the roll ... We have had cases of
deceased people appearing on the roll; people being registered in the wrong
constituencies; or others simply failing to find their names," said Madhuku.

Registrar-General Tobaiwa Mudede announced that his department would prepare
the roll according to the new constituency boundaries drawn up by the
Delimitation Commission.

However, Madhuku alleged that it was impossible for the authorities to
compile an accurate roll in time because of the lack of resources and in the
absence of an independent electoral body, the authorities could manipulate
the voting process.

"We could have hoped for a credible roll if the proposed Zimbabwe Electoral
Commission (ZEC) had been appointed ... Even if the ZEC were to be
appointed, I don't think there would be any changes, since its head will be
a presidential, and therefore partial, appointee," said Madhuku.

The main opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) has threatened to
boycott the elections unless government agrees to reform of the electoral
process in accordance with the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)
guidelines, which include the appointment of an independent electoral

The MDC is also demanding the repeal of a raft of laws affecting the media,
NGOs and public security, which it views as an infringement of Zimbabweans'
democratic rights.

Mudede has defended his department, saying: "Those questioning the accuracy
of the roll are free to go and inspect it, with the rest of the country,
during the inspection period."

He added that, "The [registrar-general's] office has a mandate to conduct
elections, and will do so until such a time that the new electoral
commission is appointed. I cannot comment on statements alleging
irregularities, because we have not gone through the inspection process as

South Africa's ruling party, the African National Congress (ANC), has
weighed into the debate on the fairness of upcoming poll.

"We have been concerned about several things [in Zimbabwe]," ANC
secretary-general Kgalema Motlanthe told a media briefing after the annual
meeting of the ANC's National Executive Committee at the weekend.

"The fact that the opposition MDC is a properly registered political party,
but it still requires police permission to hold its meetings ... impairs its
ability to interact with its constituency - it's an anomaly," Motlanthe was
quoted as saying. "Indeed, the playing field should be levelled, and the
police should act in an impartial manner," he said.

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Fraud and violence reports mar Zim poll
          January 17 2005 at 03:31PM

      Harare - Voting for candidates to stand for President Robert Mugabe's
ruling Zanu-PF in parliamentary elections was continuing for a third day on
Monday amid reports of rampant violence, fraud and confusion.

      Thousands of Zanu-PF grassroots supporters began queueing early on
Saturday in the party's primary elections for candidates to contest 120
seats in parliament, but in most places polls opened only in the afternoon,
the state press reported.

      Voting was still going on in several constituencies, state radio said
midday on Monday. The state-controlled Sunday Mail showed a picture on its
front page with a long queue of people waiting to cast their ballot papers
in an open cardboard box marked mixed fruit jam.

      Serious controversy preceded the primary elections as party supporters
held demonstrations against the exclusion of about a score of senior ruling
party officials purged by Mugabe in a crackdown on unprecedented dissent
within the ranks of the organisation he has controlled for 30 years.

      In one constituency, social welfare minister Cephas Mangwana burned a
pile of ballot papers when he saw he was losing, the pro- government Daily
Mirror said.

      Mangawana is the architect of a law soon to be promulgated and meant
to close down human rights organisations, including those devoted to
transparent elections.

      The state-run daily Herald, which usually censors reports embarrassing
to the state, said Monday that the results in two constituencies in eastern
Zimbabwe had been suspended after massive rigging and vote buying.

      Suspension of proceedings because of irregularities was reported in
several other constituencies. Frequent violent clashes between supporters of
opposing candidates were reported, and in one constituency in Harare, riot
police had to be called twice to break up brawling.

      Mugabe's victories in parliamentary elections in 2000 and presidential
elections in 2002 have been widely dismissed as the result of fraud and
violent intimidation. - Sapa-DPA

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Britain Scraps Mozambique's Debts

Agencia de Informacao de Mocambique (Maputo)

January 15, 2005
Posted to the web January 17, 2005


"We have no more debt with Britain - they have scrapped it all", Mozambican
Prime Minister Luisa Diogo told reporters in Maputo on Saturday.

She was speaking after the British Chancellor of the Exchequer (Finance
Minister), Gordon Brown, had met with President Joaquim Chissano. Brown
announced, not only that Britain has cancelled all Mozambique's bilateral
debt, but that it will also pay 10 per cent of the servicing of Mozambique's
debt to the World Bank (in proportion to Britain's 10 per cent holding in
the Bank).

Brown put the amount of debt pardoned at some 150 million dollars over the
next few years. He said he hoped that Britain's initiative of paying off the
debts of developing countries to the World Bank would be followed by other
rich nations. The money that countries such as Mozambique would otherwise
have spent on debt servicing could now be channelled to the health and
education services, he added.

Brown said he knew Mozambique was making "notable progress in poverty
reduction", and he thought it just that Britain should "join in promoting
the country's prosperity".

"The rich countries should shoulder the duty of helping the poor ones combat
misery by making more resources available for key social areas", he added.

Brown went on to meet with President-Elect Armando Guebuza, to express his
hopes for continuing close ties between Britain and Mozambique under the new
government, likely to take office in late January or early February.
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New Zimbabwe

How Zimbabwe nabbed South African spy

By Barnabas Thondhlana
Last updated: 01/18/2005 04:22:20
A SA spymaster, who "controlled" high-profile Zimbabwean "informants", was
lured into Zimbabwe by one of his "recruits" - and then arrested.

His arrest exposed at least five alleged spies, four of whom have since been
detained, and has triggered a diplomatic row between South Africa and

The SA agent, who cannot be named at this stage, was arrested in Victoria
Falls last December and is being held by Zimbabwean authorities. He
reportedly broke under interrogation and released the names of "agents" he
was handling.

The 40-year-old white agent had also been earlier arrested in Zimbabwe for a
different and minor infraction early last year but was released after
intervention by the SA authorities.

The arrested man, who "handled" at least five known "informants", committed
the major mistake of trying to recruit the head of counter intelligence of
the Zimbabwean Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO).

Intelligence sources in SA told City Press that it was this move that
eventually saw the man arrested at Victoria Falls.

Information pieced together by City Press reveal that the alleged agent had
travelled to Livingstone, in Zambia, after making arrangements with the CIO
officer to meet there.

The plan had been that the CIO officer was to check into a hotel on the
Zimbabwean side in Victoria Falls and then travel either by foot or car over
to Livingstone for the meeting.

"But on the day of the scheduled meeting the CIO officer phoned the SA agent
to say he could not make the meeting in Livingstone "for various reasons"
that related to his family. He proposed that the SA agent travel to Victoria
Fallsfor the meeting instead.

"The SA agent agreed and crossed into Zimbabwe and went to the hotel where
the CIO officer had booked in. But it was a trap and within 15 minutes of
his arrival, the Zimbabweans walked out with him under arrest," our source

The arrest was kept under wraps while the CIO interrogated the man. He then
started confessing, and revealed the names of his "informants". It was this
that led to the arrest of three prominent ZANU PF officials and a diplomat
who had been stationed in SA for nearly 10 years.

These are Zanu PF Member of Parliament and Mashonaland West provincial
chairman Phillip Chiyangwa, banker Tendai Matambanadzo, ambassador designate
to Mozambique Godfrey Dzvairo, Zanu PF Director of External Affairs Itai
Marchi and Switzerland-based embassy official Erasmus Moyo.

Moyo, however, disappeared en route to Zimbabwe following the arrest of the
others. He made good his escape at a Swiss airport after being escorted by
Zimbabwean embassy intelligence to catch a flight to Harare where he would
have been placed under arrest. His whereabouts are unknown.

When the SA man failed to return and the arrests started, SA government
officials contacted the Zimbabwean authorities inquiring about him, but were
rebuffed. "It took threats to release the story in the media to get the
Zimbabweans to confirm that they have him," a source said.

Information in Harare is that the agent is being kept in a safe house "in
comfortable conditions" and that the case was being handled from within the
office of President Robert Mugabe himself.

Rumours in Harare this week were that at least two Cabinet ministers may
also have been working for SA and may soon be arrested.

The debacle has embarrassed SA and the lines between Pretoria and Harare
have been buzzing as all efforts were made to curtail damage ensuing from
the arrests. It could not be established if Mugabe and President Thabo Mbeki
have spoken about the matter.

The Ministry of Intelligence on Friday issued a statement saying only that
it was policy not to comment on operational issues.

The statement was seen as the closest diplomatic confirmation that could be
expected under the circumstances.

Sources said after the agent's earlier arrest in the country, he had been
advised not to visit Zimbabwe again, even though the earlier arrest was not
linked to espionage.

"That is why he arranged the meeting in Livingstone. The mistake was to fall
for the trap and enter Zimbabwe.

"He should never have done that because the CIO are very good at what they
do. He should have rescheduled the meeting and flown home," another source
City Press
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New Zimbabwe

South Africa mum as 'spy' held in Zimbabwe

By Staff Reporter
Last updated: 01/18/2005 04:07:50
THE South African government is mum on the fate of a suspected spy arrested
in Zimbabwe in a trap laid by one of his "informants".

The country's foreign affairs department referred enquiries to the
intelligence services, while the presidency directed reporters to the
department. "I have no instructions on this matter at the moment," said
Ronnie Mamoepa, a foreign affairs spokesperson.

Lorna Daniels, a spokesperson for the intelligence ministry, the National
Intelligence Agency and the SA Secret Service, also declined to comment. "We
are not commenting on this matter at all," she said. "It is an operational
matter that can't be dealt with in public."

The Zimbabwean embassy in Pretoria referred enquiries to the information
ministry in Harare, which could not be reached this afternoon. Media reports
said the South African agent was arrested at Victoria Falls last month and
was being held by Zimbabwean authorities. He reportedly broke down under
interrogation and revealed the names of Zimbabwean "agents" he was handling.

His arrest apparently exposed at least five alleged spies, four or whom have
reportedly been detained. Three of them were apparently officials of the
ruling Zanu(PF) party, and one a diplomat stationed in South Africa. The
City Press newspaper reported the man's arrest was due to his attempt to
recruit the head of counter intelligence of the Zimbabwean Central
Intelligence Organisation (CIO).

The two apparently made arrangements to meet in Livingstone, Zambia, but the
CIO officer asked to meet at Victoria Falls instead. It was reportedly a
trap. - Sapa

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   Beijing's delicate balancing act in Africa
        Paul Mooney International Herald Tribune  Tuesday, January 18, 2005

Oil and freedom

BEIJING In the 1960s and 1970s, Chinese engineers were hard at work
throughout Africa, constructing stadiums, laying roads and building
hospitals in the cold war battle for the hearts and minds of third world
citizens. The politics and revolutionary idealism behind these projects
faded in the 1980s but a fast-growing China with a voracious appetite for
resources is now back with a vengeance.
Almost every African country today bears examples of China's emerging
presence, from oil fields in the east to farms in the south.
From 2002 to 2003, two-way trade climbed 50 percent to $18.5 billion - the
fastest growth China has seen with any geographical area - and is tipped to
soar to $30 billion by 2006.
China's rampant economic expansion, which gives it a huge appetite for raw
materials, is the major factor driving its long march across the African
continent. The second biggest consumer of oil after the United States, China
is searching the world for new sources of energy, and Africa is fast
becoming an important supplier. China has oil partnerships in Sudan, Chad,
Nigeria, Angola and Gabon, and is exploring a collaboration in Kenya.
Beijing has pressed history to promote its economic agenda, attempting to
win African sympathy by emphasizing the common history of exploitation that
China and African nations have suffered at the hands of Western
colonialists. This is a common theme in the pages of African newspapers,
where commentators argue that Western investors exploit Africa, while
Chinese companies tend to invest in businesses that are beneficial.
Still, there is some debate among Africans over whether China is exploiting
or benefiting their continent. The Chinese are busy developing much-needed
African infrastructure: roads and rail lines in Ethiopia, Sudan and Rwanda;
a new hospital in Sudan; a farm and a bridge across the Nile. But at what
Moeletsi Mbeki, deputy chairman of the South African Institute of
International Affairs, wrote recently on the Web site that
China "is both a tantalizing opportunity and a terrifying threat to South
Africa." On the one hand, he said that China was the tonic that mineral-rich
but economically ailing South Africa needs. But he added that exports from
China and Hong Kong to his country are double those from the rest of Africa
and almost double what South Africa exports to China. He called the trade
relations between South Africa and China "a replay of the old story of South
Africa's trade with Europe."
Mbeki added, "We sell them raw materials and they sell us manufactured goods
with a predictable result - an unfavorable trade balance."
Meanwhile, however, many African nations are pleased that no political
strings are attached to China's friendship, with the obvious exception that
they must not recognize Taiwan and must affirm the "one China" policy.
He Wenping, director of the African Studies Section at the Chinese Academy
of Social Sciences in Beijing, says that China and Africa share the view
that countries should not meddle in each other's affairs. "We don't believe
that human rights should stand above sovereignty," He says. "We have a
different view on this, and African countries share our view."
Zimbabwe is a case in point. After Americans and Europeans withdrew from the
country because of the government's destructive land reform program and poor
human rights record, China stepped in to work with the embattled, and
resource-rich, African nation.
Sudan is another example. China National Petroleum Corporation won an oil
exploitation bid there in 1995, and when Washington cut ties two years
later, the Chinese were ready to fill the void left by retreating Western
oil companies. They helped to develop oil fields, built refineries, and laid
two oil pipelines. Sudan, which was an oil importer before the Chinese
arrived, now earns $2 billion in oil exports each year, half of which goes
to China.
But more important for Sudan is Beijing's political support. China has vowed
to veto any sanctions imposed against Sudan. When the UN Security Council
tabled a resolution in September to punish Sudan for failing to stop
atrocities in the troubled western region of Darfur, it was forced to water
down the proposal to avoid a Chinese veto.
International pressure is growing for China to use its political influence
to pressure Sudan, which critics say is using its oil dollars to fund the
military actions against its black African population in Darfur. Some
observers say that China, which relishes its relatively new position as an
international mover, will not want to be seen as an obstacle to the solution
of the problem in Sudan.
If sanctions were to block oil from Iran and Sudan, China would be forced to
scramble to find other sources, which could be difficult. The question is
whether Beijing is willing to sacrifice oil and its African partnerships to
salvage its image as a responsible global force.
(Paul Mooney, a freelance journalist, has been reporting on China for 15
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Spy vs Spy, a southern African story

January 17, 2005, 08:15

Zimabwe's dramatic investigations into spying activities continue to unfold,
with the recent arrest of a South African agent believed to have been
working with some top Zanu(PF) members.

A leading South African Sunday newspaper reported yesterday, that the yet
un-named South African spymaster's arrest had caused a diplomatic row
between South Africa and Zimbabwe. The paper said rumours in Harare were
that at least two cabinet ministers may have also been working for South
Africa, and could be arrested soon.

Those already facing charges of spying include Phillip Chiyangwa, a Zanu(PF)
member of parliament, Godfrey Dzvairo, Zimbabwe's ambassador-designate to
Mozambique, Itai Marchi, the Zanu(PF) director for External affairs as well
as Kenny Karidza and businessman Tendai Matambanadzo. Professor Hennie
Strydom, international law professor at the university of Johannesburg, said
that because of the fact that the South African government has always
supported the government of Zimbabwe and the risk that has developed because
of this, releations will have to be mended and most probably be done by way
of diplomatic exchanges.

The South African government would have vested interests in doing this
because it will probably need the information to asses the region. There is
currently a unit in the president's office assessing security risk in the
region. Prof Strydom explains that the information was needed for that,
especially since Zimbabwe is nearing elections, in order to plan and to be
prepared for what could happen, a reason the professor believes is why the
information was needed.

There is substantial state practice on the handling of relations between two
countries afflicted by such a scenario. Once the government on the other
side, Zimbabwe in this case, has got the information it requires from the
person that was arrested, that person will be sent back to the country of
origin, South Africa. Professor Strydom also suspects that the information
is needed by the Zimbabwean government to press charges against Zimbabwean
nationals in Zimbabwe who where involved in getting information and passing
it onto the South African government.

As for the Zimbabwean nationals involved, depending on the kind of info that
was given to the South Africans, they could be charged for high treason,
though no mention has been made in the newspaper reports. The possibility is
at present that lesser charges will be pressed against those people.

"The South African involved in this was very disingenuous to fall in this
trap and the result is that that person will probably never be able to be
used again as an operative in that part of the world and will be sent back
and have some kind of a desk job," says Prof Strydom.

"I don't know what the security on the other side was initially. It seems
from the newspaper reports that information was passed to the South African
operative, perhaps heads will roll on the other side as well."

As for what spurred on the involvement of Zimbabwean nationals, the
professor did not hesitate to respond; "money". That's all. This has been a
factor all over the world, especially at the time of the Cold War. There
were numerous incidents between the Soviet Union and the Americans where
spies have sold, for private gain, information to the other side.
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Overhaul the UN's human rights body
        Loubna Freih International Herald Tribune  Tuesday, January 18, 2005

Evicting the abusers

GENEVA The high-level report on UN reform released last month is being
touted as the most far-reaching overhaul proposal for the international
organization since its creation. Yet for those of us working in human
rights, it offers little cure to the ills that have befallen a critically
important UN institution: the Commission on Human Rights.
The section of the report on reforming the Human Rights Commission
highlights a serious credibility problem that often casts doubt on the
overall reputation of the United Nations. The commission's job is to hear
evidence of human rights abuse and openly condemn the perpetrators. But in
practice, the commission has become an annual six-week exercise in desperate
attempts to shield malefactors from criticism.
The 53-member commission has fallen captive to some of the world's most
abusive governments, including Sudan, Zimbabwe, Saudi Arabia, Cuba, China
and Russia. When it is time to vote on critical resolutions, these abusers
act in a bloc to prevent scrutiny of their own human rights records and
those of their abusive peers. The justification: that old chestnut,
defending state sovereignty.
This was not always the case. In the last decades, the international
community, acting through UN human rights bodies, helped hasten the end of
apartheid in South Africa and gave comfort to the victims of repression in
Argentina and Chile. Yet today, the fiercest critics of "naming and shaming"
are African and Asian governments, working against the interest and
aspirations of their people.
Members of the high-level panel were quick to point out that membership is
both the key to the problem and the most sensitive issue. But they dodged
the tough issue: why states who have appalling human rights record at home,
or who refuse to cooperate with international human rights officials, should
sit on the commission at all. Instead, this group of former ministers opted
out, proposing that all 191 UN member countries should be invited to sit on
the commission.
The panel's report gives little explanation for this unworkable proposal.
Adding more government voices will do little to bring out the investigative
work of the UN experts, nor bring to the fore the plight of the victims who
often have no other place to go to air their grievances. The proposal would
further marginalize this body - again, a bonanza for the worst abusers.
This proposal takes scant notice of recent recommendations by the UN
secretary general, Kofi Annan, the late UN Commissioner for Human Rights,
Sergio Vieira de Mello, and several human rights groups, all of whom have
called for establishing qualifications for membership on the commission.
Commission membership should be earned rather than assumed as a right, and
it should be awarded only to countries that have shown a genuine commitment
to human rights.
Such commitments could include cooperation with all UN investigators,
ratification of all major UN human rights treaties, the completion of all
reports to the treaty-monitoring bodies, and a pledge to allow
country-specific situations to be discussed regardless of the politics.
Instead of making the commission bigger, the panel should have focused on
making it stronger. One proposal worthy of consideration is having the
commission in session permanently, rather than for only six weeks in the
spring. Only a full-time body can respond adequately to crises in Darfur,
Colombia or Nepal as they occur. It would enable preventive action in some
imminent cases of human rights crises. Most important, more time could be
spent on follow-up and implementation of the body's decisions.
Human rights must continue to be a concern for the Security Council in cases
where global security and peace are threatened by massive human rights
violations. A permanent human rights body would not obviate that
responsibility. But it would allow the international community to focus on
more than a handful of countries in any one year - and to take stronger
measures to address abuse.
The commission has fallen into such an abysmal state because governments
ostensibly concerned about human rights have let it happen. They must now
take up the cause of reforming the commission properly, or it will sink into
even greater disrepute.
(Loubna Freih is the Geneva-based UN representative of Human Rights Watch.)
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Comment from ZWNEWS, 17 January

Yet another troika

As we await the visit of yet another high-level troika, Zimbabweans will
remember only too clearly the fate of their predecessors. Out-manouvered by
Robert Mugabe and Zanu PF, these visits mainly serve to reassure the
visitors that they are actually doing something about the parlous state of
Zimbabwe. Little else ever seems to emerge from them. The impending visit of
the three SADC Presidents comes at a crucial time for Zimbabwe, now a matter
of weeks away from a new general election. We do not have a date, but all
indicators are that it will be held in March, and hence there is
dramatically diminishing time for SADC to have any influence on these
elections. This is the case notwithstanding the fact that the SADC meeting
in Mauritius is many months old, and that the principles and guidelines
signed up to all of SADC have been signed up to by all the member states of
SADC. Thus, this visit occurs within the context of established guidelines,
and it will be interesting to see to what extent the SADC Troika operates
within these guidelines. It also means that Zimbabweans will have an
opportunity to evaluate the conclusions of the SADC presidents against known
standards and the known evidence. The Principles identify certain essential
components of a democratic election. These include:

  a.. full participation of the citizens in the political process;
  b.. freedom of association;
  c.. political tolerance;
  d.. equal opportunity for all political parties to access the state media;
  e.. impartial electoral institutions;
  f.. an independent judiciary;
  g.. voter education;
  h.. acceptance of and respect for the election results proclaimed by the
national electoral authorities to have been free and fair; and
  i.. challenges to the election results as provided for in the law of the

These are all easy to ascertain in the current context, and largely comprise
the "freeness" component of any election. On current evidence from all
sources, the current climate is not "free", with even political processes
within Zanu PF showing violence and lack of democracy, especially in the
holding of primary elections. Several members of Zanu PF have been
prosecuted for violence in their campaigning to be elected for the party.
Here we would expect some statement from the Troika about whether these
principles are being adhered to, and on what basis they reach the conclusion
that they do. The SADC Principles also set out the responsibilities of SADC
member states holding elections, which are to:

  a.. take measures to ensure the "scrupulous implementation" of these
democratic election principles;
  b.. establish impartial, all-inclusive, competent and accountable national
electoral bodies staffed by qualified personnel;
  c.. safeguard human and civil liberties of all citizens, including the
freedom of movement, assembly, association, expression, campaigning and
access to the media on the part of all stakeholders, during electoral
  d.. provide adequate resources for carrying out democratic elections;
  e.. ensure that adequate security is provided to all parties participating
in elections;
  f.. ensure the transparency and integrity of the entire electoral process
by facilitating the deployment of representatives of political parties and
individual candidates at polling and counting stations and by accrediting
national and other observers/monitors.

Here the troika will once again have to make some statement about the
current climate, and this will have to be broader than a mere consideration
of the new Acts. Certainly the third point immediately above will be a
taxing assessment. There is little doubt in the minds of most observers,
both national and international, that there is precious little attempt by
the Zimbabwe government to "safeguard human and civil liberties". Here it
will have to be borne in mind that there is a highly adverse report from the
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights still waiting the attention
of the Assembly of the African Union. This report concludes that, at best,
the Zimbabwe government has not acted responsibly in protecting the rights
of its citizens. At worst, the evidence indicates that the Zimbabwe
government has been guilty of a campaign of politicide against its own
people, and here mostly in respect of elections. Furthermore, there has been
no credible attempt in the past five years to bring any perpetrators to
court, with the cases of Chief Inspector Dowa and CIO operative Joseph Mwale
being amongst the most egregious examples.

Here Zimbabweans will hope that there is a serious attempt to evaluate the
current climate by the troika, but we should also not expect that this is
something that can be done on a whistle-stop visit. The important evaluation
will be for the presidents to note the acrimony between the parties and the
wide range of serious allegations around elections. This will obviously
require much more detailed examination than the troika can undertake, and
hence the crucial decision that they can make must be to insist upon the
immediate deployment of a SADC observer mission. Any judgement on the
forthcoming election cannot only take place in the two weeks immediately
prior to the election, and will require a careful analysis in situ of the
Zimbabwe government's adherence to the Principles and Guidelines. This will
require discussions with the widest range of stakeholders for the elections:
political parties, civil society groups, churches, human rights groups, the
press and media, and, or course, the ordinary citizens of Zimbabwe. So, if
the troika is to be wholly impartial and serious about their new Principles
and Guidelines, we should not expect any precipitate conclusions, but rather
an insistence on comprehensive observation of the whole process. They should
also insist that the election should be conducted in an atmosphere of
openness, and this should mean that no body should be excluded from
observing these elections if they so desire. After these presidents
represent countries that have all held exemplary elections in atmospheres of
openness and accessibility. They should desire nothing less for Zimbabwe
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