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World Must Plan Now for Zimbabwe's Future

United States Department of State (Washington, DC)

June 29, 2004
Posted to the web June 30, 2004

Tara Boyle
Washington, DC

The international community must not wait for the end of President Robert
Mugabe's regime in Zimbabwe to begin planning for a new era in the politics
of the southern African nation, the author of a new book on Zimbabwe said
June 29.

Speaking to an audience at the Heritage Foundation, a Washington think tank,
Geoff Hill argued that there will be a small window of time in a post-Mugabe
era to establish a strong democracy in Zimbabwe, and that nations should be
looking ahead to this transition.

"Everybody is waiting for Mugabe to go, and then we'll put a plan in place.
There needs to be some planning now," said Hill, a correspondent for the
"Washington Times" and author of "The Battle for Zimbabwe: The Final

Hill said that the United States and other nations should focus on three key
priorities that will need to be addressed in Zimbabwe: re-establishing law
and order, providing food aid to the nation's citizens, and luring talented
Zimbabweans now living in exile back to their homeland.

Returning the millions of exiles living outside the nation will be
particularly challenging, and will likely require financial incentives, Hill

"This is going to be a big budget item. It's going to require a lot of
planning, but you're going to have to get some of these people to come
back," he said.

Scores of Zimbabweans have fled to South Africa, Great Britain and elsewhere
as political and economic conditions have worsened in recent years, Hill
noted. Zimbabwe's economy has shrunk by as much as 25 percent since 2000,
and official unemployment rates have soared above 60 percent. The nation,
which was once an important exporter of food crops, has faced food
shortfalls since 2001, and today roughly seven in 10 Zimbabweans don't have
enough to eat, Hill said.

"Mugabe has decided that there will be no food imports except those
controlled by the government and, of course, food is being used as a
weapon," he argued. "When you go to an area where there's no food and you as
a Zimbabwean queue up to try to get some food aid, you have to show your
[political] party card."

In addition to providing food aid to Zimbabwe, the international community
should plan to help the nation jump-start its commercial agriculture
industry, which has floundered under the government's controversial land
redistribution program, he said.

Hill also suggested that Zimbabwe create a truth and reconciliation
commission, much like that in South Africa, to look at human rights abuses
and find a way to reintegrate children who were recruited into "youth
brigades" under the Mugabe regime.

The youth brigades "are used as the front-line shock troops for the
government," Hill explained. "They work with impunity, moving through
villages, beating people up. They can rape, they can beat, they can burn
down people's houses -- there is nothing you can do. ... It is a tragedy of
youth out of control," he charged.

"You can't just take those people out and put them back into society. ... We
need a whole army of social workers and counselors to try to help both the
victims and the perpetrators," he said."

Hill also addressed the question of why Zimbabwe, once an African success
story, has experienced such political and economic turmoil. He argued that
the decision to nationalize Zimbabwe's press in the early 1980s began the
nation's movement away from democracy.

"As soon as you nationalize the press, as soon as you stifle that voice of
opposition, that voice of dissent, that voice of question, a country is
headed for trouble," he said.

Another problem, Hill said, was that Zimbabwe did an excellent job of
educating young people in both rural and urban areas, but did not do enough
to provide jobs for them. These restless, well-educated people eventually
went on to become the core of the revolt against the Mugabe regime, he

This experience should serve as a lesson for neighboring South Africa, which
has also put a strong emphasis on education, he argued.

"Eventually, I believe, unless the government of South Africa starts on a
very rigorous program of job creation, you're going to have the same
disenchanted, educated black youth who will start turning against the ANC
[African National Congress]," he said. "It is something to keep an eye on."

(The Washington File is a product of the Bureau of International Information
Programs, U.S. Department of State. Web site:
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Enough is Enough



We have a fundamental right to freedom of expression!


Sokwanele reporter

30 June 2004

The St Cross Anglican Church in the Hwedza district of Mashonaland East has been the spiritual home and centre point of the farming community of that area for decades. It is – or was – a beautiful little church, nestling among the granite rocks and msasa trees that grow to a great height in that region.  A feature of the little church was the large plain glass window behind the altar, affording worshippers a magnificent view of this remarkable landscape.


Imagine the shock and dismay then of an elderly parishioner who visited the church last week only to find that this hallowed sanctuary had been plundered and vandalized by ZANU PF thugs.   Many of the pews had been removed, the altar stripped out and the beautiful antique organ was gone.  Daubed on the walls in red paint were slogans to the effect that “This is now a Catholic Church”.


While the meaning and purpose of the offensive graffiti may not be immediately clear, reliable reports from the area indicate that ZANU PF meetings are now held in the building.  It is also known that the ZANU PF Minister responsible for youth training, Elliot Manyika, has put out the word that henceforth party meetings must be held in churches wherever possible in order to “undermine the authority of the Church”



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Zimbabwe Parliament Passes Tough Detention Laws
Peta Thornycroft
30 Jun 2004, 16:42 UTC

Zimbabwe's parliament, controlled by President Robert Mugabe's Zanu-PF
party, passed new detention laws Wednesday, described by the opposition as
the most repressive in the country's history. The laws extend the amount of
time prisoners can be detained under security legislation, without an
appearance in court, from 48 hours to more than three weeks.
The opposition Movement for Democratic Change's legal secretary David
Coltart told parliament the new detention laws for a wide range of political
offenses are reminiscent of those in force during apartheid in South Africa.

He said the laws are the most repressive of any nation in the Southern
African Development Community and would widely affect freedom of political
activity in the run up to parliamentary elections in eight months.

Zimbabwean police can now detain people for more than three weeks before
they can apply for bail on a range of so-called political offenses, such as
passive resistance and discussing a work stoppage.

The escalation of what has been described by many political commentators as
repressive legislation was presented in parliament as amendments to laws
about detention for those arrested on suspicion of corruption.

Within the clauses on corruption are several which also affect section five
of the Public Order and Security Act, which became law just before the
disputed presidential election of 2002. The election gave Mr. Mugabe six
more years in power.

Last week, most Zanu-PF members of parliament boycotted the second reading
of the bill, extending detention for those arrested on suspicion of
corruption. In response to the boycott, Justice Minister Patrick Chinamasa
relaxed some of the provisions for detention on corruption crimes but left
in place those for political offenses.

Section five of the security act, which now allows for 23 days of detention
before any bail application, makes it an offense to, in its words, subvert
the government by planning to, or taking part in civil disobedience, whether
such resistance is active or passive. Such activity is punishable by up to
20 years in prison.

Although hundreds of opposition activists have been arrested under this law
in the last two years, and several were tortured in detention, court records
show they were usually brought to court to apply for bail within 48 hours.
Now they will have to wait for more than three weeks.

In August Mr. Mugabe is expected to ask the Southern African Development
Community, in particular South Africa, to endorse some electoral reforms
announced last week, which the opposition has said are largely cosmetic.
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      Zimbabwe tourism authority calls for direct flight to China 2004-07-01 01:53:21

          HARARE, 30 (Xinhuanet) -- The Zimbabwe Tourism Authority (ZTA) has
called for a quick introduction of a direct flight between Zimbabwe and
China to boost tourism between the two countries, according to the New Ziana
news agency on Wednesday.

          ZTA chief executive Tichaona Jokonya was quoted as saying that a
direct flight would enable the country to offer tourism services at
competitive rates.

          "It is only through a direct flight that we will be able to reduce
the cost of our packages," he said.

          Jokonya said it was disheartening to note that there had been slow
progress in the introduction of a direct flight between the two countries
even though an agreement had been reached as far back as 1996.

          He said the absence of direct flights between the country and
strategic source markets was a major obstacle to the development of tourism.

          Zimbabwe has been granted the highly acclaimed Approved
Destination Status (ADS) by the Asian country as economic cooperation
between the two countries continues to grow.

          About 20 operators have already expressed interest to service the
ADS market.

          Tourist arrivals from Europe, Zimbabwe's traditional source
market, have declined significantly in recent years due to strained
relations over political misunderstandings.
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Courier Mail, Brisbane

Zimbabwe Test decision looms
From correspondents in London
STRIFE-TORN Zimbabwe's immediate future as a Test-playing nation will be
decided on Thursday, the International Cricket Council (ICC) told AFP today.

"The executive board meeting is still ongoing and we will make an official
announcement tomorrow (Thursday) at Lord's," said ICC spokesman Jon Long as
cricket's leading administrators continued to debate a raft of issues at the
historic London cricket ground.

It is expected that the ICC will announce a continuing postponment of
Zimbabwe's Test matches.

Zimbabwe Cricket Union (ZCU) chairman Peter Chingoka met ICC president Ehsan
Mani in Dubai earlier this month to agree that Zimbabwe postpone all their
forthcoming Test matches for the rest of 2004.

Zimbabwe only had four Tests scheduled for the remainder of 2004 - two in
Pakistan in October and two at home to England in November.

However, the ICC became increasingly concerned at the strength of the
Zimbabwean Test team after 15 senior players went on strike following the
sacking of captain Heath Streak.

Fast bowler Streak, now at English county Warwickshire, was sacked after he
objected to the ZCU selection policies which he claimed were racially and
politically-motivated and compromised the success of the national team.

The ICC and the ZCU agreed in Dubai that Zimbabwe continue playing one-day

Meanwhile countries such as Australia, India and South Africa have offered
to include young Zimbabwean cricketers in their own development schemes to
help ensure the next generation of players from the troubled African state
are competitive.

If the game's governing body rubber-stamps the compromise proposal then
England will still be required to tour the impoverished African country
despite misgivings voiced by the British government, a fierce critic of the
policies of Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe, and some officials at the
England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB).

The ICC are also expected to announce whether they will be staying at

Their financial office is already based in Monaco, for tax purposes, and a
complete move to a more tax friendly environment could see further resources
freed up for the benefit of the international game.

Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates, and Malaysia are among the favoured
venues if the ICC does decide to leave Lord's.
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Zim election reform 'cosmetic'
30/06/2004 19:53  - (SA)

Harare - Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai criticised
government-proposed electoral reforms on Wednesday, calling them cosmetic
measures aimed at deceiving voters and poll observers.

The proposals - including transparent ballot boxes and an independent
election commission to supervise voting - were "still miles away from our
needs," Tsvangirai said.

President Robert Mugabe's 26-member politburo, his party's top policy-making
body, agreed last week to adopt election reforms before March 2005 general
elections, state media reported.

Under the proposed reforms, next year's polls would be held on one day,
instead of over two or three days as in the past. The number of polling
stations would be increased, and verification of ballots would take place at
polling stations.

The proposals meet some opposition demands, but fall far short of
guaranteeing a free and fair poll, Tsvangirai said.

The state media said on Saturday the proposals were necessary because of
"the intrusive behaviour of the US and (European Union), who often declare
elections not free and fair when the results are not in their political

An atmosphere of suspicion

Mugabe vowed last week not to allow Western observers to monitor future
elections, saying: "We will not allow the erstwhile imperialists to judge
our elections. We ask our friends to judge us."

International observers rejected the June 2000 parliamentary and March 2002
presidential elections, citing widespread intimidation and vote rigging.
Mugabe, 80, claimed victory in both polls.

Tsvangirai said in a statement the country's electoral process remained
flawed and left an atmosphere of suspicion and mistrust among voters.

"Let us not deceive ourselves that internal and external recognition and
legitimacy can be achieved through half-baked and cosmetic measures designed
to deceive the people," Tsvangirai said.

"Unless someone has something to hide, genuine elections are open to
observation and endorsement by all interested persons or parties regardless
of their country of origin. Players must never choose their own referees,"
he said.

Tsvangirai said no reforms were proposed to sweeping media and security laws
that severely curtailed rights to free expression and free assembly
necessary for fair campaigning.

"No free and fair election is possible when political activity and democratic space are at a premium," Tsvangirai said.
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Zimbabwe: Aids Haunting Transport Sector

UN Integrated Regional Information Networks

June 30, 2004
Posted to the web June 30, 2004


The International Labour Organisation (ILO) says officials in Zimbabwe's
transport sector are not responding to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

The ILO has recommended that transport enterprises develop policy
frameworks, followed by concrete action plans to guide responses to the
virus, which is killing 3,000 individuals every week in Zimbabwe.

AIDS was posing a major challenge to business development, according to the
ILO, with HIV-related absenteeism, loss of productivity and the cost of
replacing workers threatening the survival of a number of businesses and
sectors in the country.
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Debts, Inefficiency Biggest Threats to Parastatals: Zembe

The Herald (Harare)

June 30, 2004
Posted to the web June 30, 2004


EFFORTS by the Government to effect turnaround strategies for parastatals
should be taken seriously by all concerned parties.

The Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce president, Mr Luxon Zembe, said in
an interview that there was need to ensure the entities became economically

"Some of the parastatals have long-standing debts which need to be serviced
so if there are no measures to address that situation we have a situation
where money generated will go towards servicing of debts," Mr Zembe said.

The ZNCC president pointed out that debts and inefficiency were the biggest
enemies to the operations of parastatals.

He pointed out that former public enterprises that had been privatised such
as Dairibord and the Cotton Company of Zimbabwe were performing well and
others needed to take a cue from them.

The Government recently said the policy to restructure and commercialise
parastatals into viable entities was still on course.

The Department of Information and Publicity in the Office of the President
and Cabinet said, however, that the policy was to ensure that parastatals
were capable of delivering essential services and goods to the people
without imposing an onerous burden on the fiscus.

Mr Zembe said moves such as the one taken by the Ministry of Transport and
Communications on parastatals falling under its jurisdiction should be taken
seriously by those running the parastatals.

Tripartite Turnaround Committees were set up by the parent ministry for Air
Zimbabwe and the National Railways of Zimbabwe in April this year.

The committees were given until the end of June to report back with
acceptable and practical turnaround strategies.

The two committees comprised of board chairpersons and two other board
members, representatives of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
and not more than three members of the management.

Tel One, Net One and Zimpost in telecommunications sector also had similar
committees set up.
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Community Service for Youth Recruits Reintroduced

The Herald (Harare)

June 30, 2004
Posted to the web June 30, 2004


THE Ministry of Youth Development, Gender and Employment Creation has
reintroduced community service programmes for National Youth Service

Speaking at the official launch of the programme in Marondera last week,
Youth Development, Gender and Employment Creation Minister Retired Brigadier
Ambrose Mutinhiri said at least 300 youths from each province would be
deployed under the programme.

"Trainees will basically be attached to identified areas of public works
that are within walkable distances from their homes and where necessary
trainees may operate away from their homes," he said.

To this end, he said he had directed recruits from Guyu, Dadaya and Border
Gezi training centres to be deployed to all parts of the country with a view
to fulfil various objectives.

These include offering voluntary service to the nation, creating a spirit of
voluntarism in the youth, creating awareness among Zimbabweans on the
national youth programme and reaching out to disadvantaged members of

Some of the areas identified in addition to public works programmes are
civil works and social service.

The minister said the targeted workplaces included State institutions like
municipalities, rural district councils, schools, clinics, local boards,
colleges, universities, Government offices, police stations, army
institutions, prisons and parastatals.

"The social area is very important to us all since it has always been the
character and tradition of black Zimbabweans to help the socially
disadvantaged members of society.

"It is such a spirit that we need to cultivate in our youths as they grow
into adulthood. The community service programme is a social service to the
nation and, as such, should not in any way be politicised," he said.

The reintroduction of the programme, he said, was in recognition of the
essence of the concept of national youth service, which is about one
offering voluntary service to one's nation.

He said such service could be social, intellectual or military depending on
particular needs of individual countries and communities.

"Indeed, the national service concept is a common practice in countries like
Ghana, Costa Rica, the United States of America, Germany, Canada and many

"The spirit of serving one's nation forms the foundation of patriotism and
the desire to defend one's heritage.

"In this light, my ministry has seen it fit that starting with the current
intake of national service recruits under training, we engage on a
month-long community service attachment programme.

"Our aim is to ensure that recruits do indeed offer voluntary service
towards the development of the nation before they graduate," he said.

The minister said the programme used to be part of the national youth
training in the initial stage before it was discontinued owing to lack of

He, however, said his ministry could not continue to overlook the programme
as it was an important component of the training process whose aim was to
mould a desirable and acceptable citizenry out of the youths.
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Harare's Water Reservoirs Still Low

The Herald (Harare)

June 30, 2004
Posted to the web June 30, 2004


HARARE City Council yesterday said its reservoirs are still low and that it
has changed the commencement of the 24-hour water-rationing programme to

The council has also extended the water cuts to more areas.

Most reservoirs are still below 50 percent full with Hogerty Hill and
Philadelphia reservoirs recording the lowest levels of between zero percent
and 4,3 percent respectively.

Water levels at Donnybrook and Ventersburg dropped due to reduced pumping
while one of the pumps at Letombo, whose bearings became faulty, is still
being attended to.

Total water pumped to the reservoirs and reticulation system for the past 24
hours stood at 572 megalitres from Tuesday's 567 megalitres.

Water for the northern suburbs will be disconnected today at 8.30am and this
will affect Meyrick Park, parts of Mabelreign, Belvedere, Emerald Hill,
parts of Mount Pleasant, Strathaven, Milton Park, Alexandra Park, Avondale,
Borrowdale West, Ashdown Park, Kensington and Borrowdale.

Council will today isolate the 800-millimetre Northwest Mains at Kirkman,
which will affect areas such as Bluff Hill, Westgate, Mabelreign to the
north, and parts of Marlborough.

Harare's director of works Mr Psychology Chiwanga said one pump from
Alexandra Park to Highlands would run every night while valves would be
adjusted to balance the flow between Philadelphia and Hatcliffe.

Water to the southern suburbs, Epworth and Ruwa, disconnected yesterday will
be restored today before being cut off tomorrow.

The affected areas are Zimre Park, Greendale, Waterfalls, Hatfield,
Queensdale, Hillside, Arcadia, Eastlea, Ruwa, Epworth, Kambanji, Glen Lorne,
Msasa Park and Chisipite.

One supply leg to Chikurubi would be shut permanently while the Amby feeder
would be closed every day between 6pm and 6am.

Supplies to areas such as Queensdale, Mabvuku/Tafara, Msasa and Ruwa, which
had gone for days without water, were restored yesterday.
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The Herald

Bank allowed to collect equipment at Kondozi

Court Reporter
BARCLAYS Bank of Zimbabwe was yesterday allowed to collect agricultural
machinery and other farm equipment at Kondozi Farm, which had been placed
under judicial management.

High Court judge Justice Antonia Guvava granted an application by the bank
seeking confirmation of the provisional order compelling the Agricultural
and Rural Development Authority to return all the machinery and equipment
the bank had leased to Mr Edwin Moyo and the De Klerk family, the owners of
Canvest (Pvt) Ltd.

The application was not contested.

Canvest used to run Kondozi before Arda took over the equipment at the farm
after the farm was acquired by the Government and allocated to the
parastatal under the land reform programme.

The High Court last month granted an interim order placing the equipment
under judicial management pending the finalisation of the case, with the
consent of both Barclays Bank and Canvest listed as first respondent in the

Arda, the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Cde Joseph Made,
and the police were also cited as respondents in the case.

Barclays Bank had, in its application, said it owned the machinery and other
equipment at the farm, which Canvest was using on a rent-to-buy basis.

Canvest would take over the equipment after paying rentals in full,
according to an agreement between the two firms.

Among the assets listed are 15 tractors and 14 trucks.

In the event of the respondents and anyone in possession of the assets
failing to comply with the order, the Deputy Sheriff would be authorised to
seize the assets and deliver them to Barclays Bank.

The police were interdicted from interfering with the removal of the assets
at Kondozi also known as Wallacedale Farm.

Through their lawyer, Mr Agmos Moyo of Coghlan, Welsh and Guest, Barclays
sought relief from the court after Canvest failed to honour its obligations
to pay rentals for using the equipment.

Mr Moyo requested the court to place the assets under judicial management,
arguing that the former owners of Kondozi owed Barclays more than $5 billion
in rentals.

According to Canvest, some of the machinery is no longer at Kondozi and
Barclays Bank said it was denied the right to inspect their property.

Mr Moyo also argued that Arda was in unlawful possession of the "financed
assets" and "it is paramount that legality be restored without a further

Mr Collen Mudara of the Civil Division of the Attorney- General's Office,
who represented Arda, Cde Made and the police, had urged the court to give
due weight to the interest of the State. Mr Mudara had said Barclays should
have waited to give negotiations a chance so that Arda takes over the
obligations of Canvest.
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The Herald

Chitungwiza seeks $10bn from RBZ

By Walter Nyamukondiwa
CHITUNGWIZA Municipality wants to borrow $10 billion from the Reserve Bank
of Zimbabwe to finance capital projects such as the maintenance, repair and
overhaul of the sewer and water reticulation system in some parts of the
country*s third largest town in terms of population.

The RBZ has put in place a $20 billion Productive Sector Facility that local
authorities and parastatals can access for their operations.

Chitungwiza mayor Mr Misheck Shoko said council wants to replace sewer pipes
in St Mary*s and Unit H where sewer and water pipe bursts are common.

Councils need Government approval if they want to borrow an amount of money
in excess of its previous year*s revenue.

Chitungwiza realised about $7 billion last year.

Mr Shoko said council was finalising auditing of its 2003 accounts. Audited
accounts are an RBZ condition for accessing the funds.

"I can say we have done over 60 percent of the audits. We feel that if we
can get the funds, it will go a long way in helping us do the work," said Mr

The council recently borrowed $3 billion which, it said, was meant for the
same capital projects.

Mr Shoko, however, described the $3 billion as a drop in the ocean.

"The sum total of $13 billion will assist us very much in completing the
sewer and water reticulation project," he said.

Addressing the Urban Councils* Association of Zimbabwe annual conference in
Kariba last week, the Minister of Local Government, Public Works and
National Housing, Cde Ignatius Chombo, castigated local authorities for
failing to apply for the funds while decrying lack of support from the

No council has applied for the funds since the RBZ facility was set up.

The fund is meant to assist local authorities provide satisfactory service
delivery at minimum cost to ratepayers.
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University Faces Collapse

The Herald (Harare)

June 30, 2004
Posted to the web June 30, 2004

George Maponga

THE taskforce on the Great Zimbabwe University in Masvingo has called on all
returning students to re-register if they wish to be considered for places
at Government-run universities in a development that could signal the
collapse of Masvingo's first university.

The university, run by the Reformed Church in Zimbabwe, has been torn apart
by wrangles between stakeholders over the composition of the university

The condemnation of the GZU's law degree programme by the council for legal
education also accelerated the two-year-old university's slide towards its
demise, prompting Government intervention to save students.

In a statement yesterday, the chairman of the GZU taskforce, Dr Washington
Mbizvo, dismissed a notice by university authorities assuring students that
all programmes would continue until the end of the semester.

"The chairman of the taskforce on the Great Zimbabwe University, Dr
Washington Mbizvo, wishes to advise all Great Zimbabwe University students
that information contained in the notice to all students from the acting
registrar of the Great Zimbabwe University dated 17th June 2004, does not
reflect the true position of both Government and the 'mandate' of the
taskforce as clearly defined by the Minister of Higher and Tertiary
Education," said the statement by Dr Mbizvo.

Dr Mbizvo is also the Secretary for Higher and Tertiary Education.

The statement said all returning law students would be absorbed by the
University of Zimbabwe Law Faculty and lectures were expected to start on
August 2.

Dr Mbizvo said the rest of the returning students would be offered places at
Masvingo State University where lectures expected to start on August 23.

"Further information regarding final registration with Masvingo State
University and the University of Zimbabwe will be advised by the respective
universities in due course," said Dr Mbizvo.

An information centre will be opened on July 5 and 6 at Masvingo Polytechnic
to explain the redeployment and absorption of the GZU students.

The statement by Dr Mbizvo came in the wake of a notice to students by GZU
authorities that set preconditions for students to be re-deployed.

The university's council had created the impression that programmes would
continue, with the university running for a full 15-week semester.

"There is no automatic absorption into Masvingo State University or
University of Zimbabwe. Students will be screened on: academic performance,
disciplinary offences, outstanding fees, library books and sports
equipment," read the notice to students from the GZU acting registrar's

Most of the students at the university were unlikely to meet the conditions
as they had since stopped attending lectures while others had not paid their

The re-deployment and absorption of the more than 2 000 students enrolled by
GZU will end their stormy and turbulent spell at the institution that was
yet to build its own offices two years about its birth in 2002.

The Minister of Higher and Tertiary Education, Cde Herbert Murerwa, was in
Masvingo on Monday to meet stakeholders of the university, especially the
Reformed Church, to find an amicable solution to the GZU problem.

Contacted for comment, the RCZ moderator, Reverend Enos Chomutiri, said he
was happy with the meeting they had held with Dr Murerwa over the future of
the institution.

"We held discussions on the future of Great Zimbabwe University and I am
hopeful that in the future the church will be able to get its charter for
its own university," said Reverend Chomutiri.
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      Seizing sovereignty in Africa

            By Kojo Bedu-Addo
            Senior Analyst, Control Risks Group

      Recent conflicts in Sudan, Liberia and Ivory Coast have ignited
discussion about foreign intervention in failing states.

      Humanitarian intervention is intended to help ordinary citizens who
bear the brunt of the violence and economic hardship in such situations.

      However, the concept remains contentious, raising important questions
about when a state's sovereignty should be over-ruled.

      The new African Union's security council has acknowledged that
intervention is a likely scenario.

      The AU's charter explicitly overturns the old respect for national

      Political renaissance

      These new guiding principles send a strong signal to member states
that they risk losing their sovereignty to the regional body in the event of
poor governance and gross failure to protect civilian life.

      The 1994 genocide in Rwanda provided the tragic, but compelling
argument for this radical concept to gain acceptance.

      The charter raises important questions: It's not clear whether in the
claimed political renaissance, African leaders will abandon the traditional
refusal to even criticise their peers, let alone intervene in their internal

      It is also questionable whether the AU's members would agree on
intervention, and how long it would take.

      It is unclear at what stage intervention would become acceptable.

      For instance, if food shortages and political violence grew worse in
Zimbabwe, when would the AU act?

      A second issue surrounds the practicalities of intervention.

      Events in Somalia reduced the willingness of the US to intervene in
situations that are of no direct strategic interest.

      But the war on terrorism and the links between terrorism and failed
states have changed these calculations.

      Military muscle

      A number of recent successful interventions have been carried out by a
single state with the backing of the international community.

      For example, Australia intervened in East Timor and Solomon Islands;
the British-led intervention in Sierra Leone; and the French led the
operation in eastern DR Congo.

      These cases underline continued reliance on the West for the required
military muscle.

      But Africa has shown that it can act alone: a South African operation
provides security for politicians in Burundi.

      The West African regional body, Ecowas, has played a key role in peace
processes in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast.

      There have been renewed discussions on the formation of a standing
African army, an idea first pioneered by Ghana's independence leader and
pan-Africanist Kwame Nkrumah.

      However, at present there is heavy reliance on Nigeria and South

      If they were unwilling to act, it is hard to see how intervention
could proceed.

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