Mail and Guardian
Zimbabwe lawyers concerned at delay in Tsvangirai's
19 June 2003 14:59
rights lawyers in Zimbabwe on Thursday expressed concern at the
detention of opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai who has been in
for nearly two weeks.
Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights (ZLHR) said the
detention of Tsvangirai
was "the highest profile matter" among a number of
cases of allegedly
"delayed justice" in the country's
Tsvangirai was arrested on June 6, the last day of mass action
called by his
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) party against the
He was charged with treason for allegedly inciting the
violent overthrow of
President Robert Mugabe's government during rallies
ahead of the mass
Tsvangirai denies the charges. He has so far
spent 13 nights in police
custody awaiting a ruling on his bail
"Concern has also been raised that these delays appear to be
in cases that are considered 'sensitive' or of public
politically-related or of a constitutional nature," the ZLHR
A judge hearing Tsvangirai's bail application said
she would let his lawyers
know this week when they could expect a ruling on
the bail application. -
Mail and Guardian
Now Mugabe takes revenge on transport
19 June 2003 13:50
Zimbabwe government is to withdraw the operating licences of
companies that shut down during a week of mass action early this
protest against President Robert Mugabe's government, state-run ZBC
station said on Thursday.
Some 44 transport companies in the
private sector have already had their
licences withdrawn or are in the
process of losing them, the radio said.
At the beginning of the protests,
called by the opposition Movement for
Democratic Change (MDC), the government
ordered businesses that had shut to
reopen or lose their licences.
government accused company leaders of barring their employees from
during the week-long protests which took the form of work stoppages
"peaceful marches for democracy," in the MDC's words.
The work stoppages
were well followed in Zimbabwe's cities but attempts to
hold marches were put
down, often violently, by the security forces and
Hundreds of MDC members and backers were arrested during the
including the party's leader Morgan Tsvangirai, who has been
accused by the
state of calling on Zimbabweans to violently oust Mugabe and
treason -- the second such charge against him, and punishable by
Tsvangirai was still in police custody on Thursday, awaiting a
decision on whether to grant him bail.
The MDC blames
Mugabe's government for the economic and social woes in
unemployment is at around 70%, annual inflation higher than
300%, and nearly
half the population is threatened by famine caused by a
drought and the
government's chaotic land reforms. - Sapa-AFP
Tsvangirai called off Zim talks - Lekota
June 19 2003 at
By Ben Maclennan
A Zimbabwean opposition leader
Morgan Tsvangirai broke off talks with the
ruling Zanu-PF party to launch his
recent abortive mass action campaign,
Defence Minister Mosiuoa "Terror"
Lekota said on Thursday.
Tsvangirai's "unfortunate" move had weakened
South Africa's position as a
mediator in the conflict, Lekota, who is also
national chairperson of the
African National Congress, told the Cape Town
"After we had prevailed on Zanu and themselves to have the
now leaves the discussions and calls this mass action thing,
that now puts
him in jail.
'He calls this mass action thing,
that now puts him in jail'
"Why do you leave the talks when the people agree
let's go and talk?" an
animated Lekota said in reply to questions on South
Africa's stand on
"He must go with his own position to the
talks, and then Zanu must come with
their own position.
"But when he
left that, we felt he weakened our position. We really felt he
position, but we'll continue, even now, we continue to say to
got to go to the talks."
Tsvangirai is nearing the end of his second week
in jail on treason charges
for allegedly inciting the violent overthrow of
President Robert Mugabe's
government during rallies ahead of the planned mass
The protests were thwarted by a massive show of force from the
'I've read that also in the
newspaper: I know it, sir'
The opposition leader was arrested on June 6, the
last day of the planned
Lekota told the press club South
Africa had played a "principal role", along
with Nigeria, in encouraging the
"Now unfortunately of course Tsvangirai called" he said, but was
by an interjection of: "He's in jail.
"I've read that also
in the newspaper: I know it, sir," Lekota said.
"Let me say something: we
got arrested in this country persuading the
government here that we must go
to the talks."
Reminded that the ANC itself had staged anti-government
marches in the years
before the transition to democracy in 1994, he
"But that was saying to the government, let's to go the talks;
government was refusing to go to the talks.
"When Zanu has agreed
to go to the talks with them.
"When President Thabo Mbeki and (Nigerian)
president Obasanjo were there, an
agreement was reached that they must go to
Zim: 90% drop in production
19/06/2003 18:48 -
Johannesburg - Zimbabwe's land reform programme has caused a 90%
production in large-scale commercial farming since the 1990s, UN
organisations said in a report released on
Subsequently, about 400 000 farm workers - who were meant to
the controversial resettlement plan - lost their jobs and
"Following the land reform programme, the large-scale commercial
produces only about one tenth of its output in the 1990s," the
crop and food supply in the southern African country
The findings in the document, released simultaneously in
Rome, are based on a fact-finding mission by the Food and
Organisation (FAO) and the World Food Programme to Zimbabwe in
April and May
The delegation was lead by Henri Josserand,
the chief of the FAO's Global
Information and Early Warning System. The
mission concluded that 5.5 million
people in a population of 11.6 million
were in need of food aid, despite the
annual cereal production having
increased compared to last year.
The UN estimated that emergency aid
agencies needed to provide an estimated
610 000 tons of maize to fill the
Mealiemeal price escalated
The government controlled
price of mealiemeal was raised almost four-fold in
May, exacerbating the
situation, the report said.
"This will greatly limit access to available
supplies for the most
Zimbabwean President Robert
Mugabe embarked on a controversial and sometimes
violent land reform
programme in early 2000. The exercise saw at least a
quarter of the country's
total land endowment, formerly owned by whites,
being seized to make way for
"These actitivities and processes have severly disrupted
as many resettled farmers lack access to capital and other
inputs or need
time to settle down, contributing to this year's low cereal
report by the UN agencies said.
The land reform
programme, erratic rainfall and a severe shortage of mealie
fertiliser were the main causes of the food crisis.
"The situation of
over 400 000 former farm workers and their families is
desperate, as they
have, in many cases, been displaced from their homes,
have not benefited from
the land reforms and have few employment
opportunities," the report said. -
Mugabe wants to anoint successor
By Christopher Munnion in
June 20 2003
President Robert Mugabe of
Zimbabwe is considering quitting within a year
under "certain conditions",
South African Government sources say.
Mr Mugabe's demands included the
right to nominate his successor and
international and local recognition that
he remained the country's properly
elected founding president to enable him
to enjoy "honourable retirement",
The 79-year-old autocrat,
whose obsession with clinging to power has brought
his once-prosperous nation
to the edge of economic collapse and political
chaos, is said to have assured
President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa of his
retirement plans in a telephone
call last week.
Mr Mbeki sees Mr Mugabe as a big impediment to his dream
introducing a scheme under which African nations would commit
good governance in return for international financial
Mr Mbeki called Mr Mugabe on the eve of the World Economic Forum
Durban, a crucial meeting for the scheme's acceptance, which the
African leader hosted.
Mr Mbeki was said to have been
enraged by images emerging from Zimbabwe of
Morgan Tsvangirai, leader of the
opposition Movement for Democratic Change,
being hauled before court in
chains to face a second charge of high treason
for organising protests
against the Mugabe Government.
Sources said Mr Mbeki told Mr Mugabe of
South Africa's displeasure over what
was happening. A surprisingly
conciliatory Mr Mugabe assured the South
African leader of his plans for
conditional retirement but emphasised that
he would not quit under pressure
from "troublemakers" or "international
Mugabe has repeatedly broken assurances given to South Africa.
issued a statement on Wednesday rejecting any suggestion that he
The Telegraph, London
Journo charges Zim ambassador
19/06/2003 21:45 -
Gaborone - A journalist has filed assault charges against
ambassador to Botswana who he says attacked him over an article he
police said on Thursday.
Hloniphani Chengeta, a journalist for
Botswana's Sunday Tribune claimed
Phelekezela Mphoko grabbed him and held him
against a wall after the
diplomat objected to a report he had
"We have received a complaint and we are dealing with it,"
Commissioner, Norman Malebogo said.
It is unclear
whether Mphoko's diplomatic immunity would frustrate attempts
"We are conferring with Foreign Affairs on the matter. A decision
yet been taken as to how the suspect should be dealt with," Malebogo
The incident followed the publishing of an article in which the
quoted the information and publicity secretary of Zimbabwe's
Nathan Shamuyarira, saying that Botswana was being used by
British and US
troops to launch a regime change in
Shamuyarira was also quoted as claiming that Botswana was
Zimbabwe's opposition party and Western powers to remove
Mugabe from power.
Chengeta said that Mphoko "grabbed
me by the scruff of the neck and held me
against the wall. One of my
colleagues managed to pull him off."
The watchdog Media Institute of
Southern Africa issued a statement on the
alleged assault, saying Zimbabwe's
High Commission to Botswana denied the
allegations. - Sapa-AP
Director-General Defends Ben-Menashe
June 19, 2003
Posted to the web June 19,
THE treason trial of MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai
continued yesterday with a
State witness telling the court that chief witness
Mr Ari Ben Menashe helped
greatly in thwarting the opposition party's
attempts to tarnish the image of
Director-General of the
Department of National Security Retired Brigadier
Happyton Bonyongwe said the
information provided by Mr Ben-Menashe to the
Government laid the groundwork
for his department to interdict the MDC from
damaging the country's
He said the amount of money paid to Mr Ben-Menashe was for the
job he had done and was in accordance with the
Rtd Brig Bonyongwe said this under cross-examination by
Bizos in the ongoing trial of Tsvangirai and his
Tsvangirai, the party's secretary-general Welshman Ncube and
Gweru Rural MP
Renson Gasela are charged with the plot to assassinate
President Mugabe in
the run-up to last year's presidential
Rtd Brig Bonyongwe said Mr Ben-Menashe greatly contributed in
MDC activities of trying to mislead West African countries
"He managed to influence events to
directions favourable to the Government,"
Adv Bizos queried
whether he considered the visits of Tsvangirai to West
Adv Bizos argued that the activities of the opposition party
in West Africa
were not subversive to warrant the Government to pay Mr
sums of money.
But Rtd Brig Bonyongwe suggested that
that could be measured by the extent
of the damages caused.
also asked him if he considered it subversive to criticise the
policy on land reforms.
Rtd Brig Bonyongwe replied that Government
policies had to be supported as
part of furthering the interests of the
He disagreed with a Daily News article read in court on
to four West African countries.
The article said
Tsvangirai visited Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin
to brief the
leaders of those countries about the alleged crisis in
Rtd Brig Bonyongwe said Tsvangirai had misrepresented to
that there was lawlessness in the country, according to the
"I don't think the report was a fair representation of what was
the ground," he said.
"At that time the country was more
at peace and there was no wanton
lawlessness in the country."
Bizos argued that the activities of Tsvangirai in those countries
subversive as it was his democratic right to seek the intervention
well-respected political leaders to help solving the country's
Rtd Brig Bonyongwe explained again to the court the payments made
Ben-Menashe and other State witnesses.
The court also heard that
one of the witnesses Ms Tara Thomas was paid US$10
000 for the injuries she
sustained when she was felled from a bicycle in
Canada by two unidentified
men who threatened her saying: "Let your Zimbabwe
evidence Ms Thomas said she was not paid anything by the Government
The court heard that the Government had extended the contract
Ben-Menashe to January next year. Tsvangirai and his co-accused deny
charges that are punishable with the death penalty and argue that
Government set them up.
Judge President Justice Paddington Garwe
is hearing the case with assessors
Major Misheck Nyandoro and Mr Joseph
The trial continues.
Country to Host Conference On Tourism
June 19, 2003
Posted to the web June 19, 2003
ZIMBABWE is set to host the World Tourism
conference on tourism investment next
The international conference, which will involve all the Southern
Development Community countries aimed at promoting
conservation parks, will focus on the Great Limpopo
The request was made by the Minister of
Environment and Tourism, Francis
Nhema at the 39th WTO Commission for Africa
meeting (CAF) in Angola
The international conference will
follow a WTO regional seminar on tourism
planning and sustainable
development, which will also be held in Zimbabwe.
The regional meeting will
assess the implementation of specific programme
activities to promote tourism
development in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Cde Nhema, who held strategic meetings
with the WTO secretary general, has
also requested the mother body's
expertise in developing Zimbabwe's national
Although the WTO was not a funding agency, officials indicated that
organisation would ensure that Zimbabwe obtained technical assistance
well as sourcing funding to develop the plan.
Zimbabwe has been
struggling to produce a national tourism development plan
for almost five
years now resulting in fragmented, adhoc and unrealistic
Cde Nhema also discussed with his counterparts
from Zambia, Angola, Botswana
and Namibia on the resuscitation of the
Okavango Upper Zambezi Initiative
project. The project could become Southern
Africa's second largest
transfrontier tourism development after the Great
The CAF meeting in Angola was the first international
meeting held in that
country since it attained peace last year.
was chosen as the venue, in solidarity with its people.
discussed, among other important issues, the role and impact of
the consolidation of African co-operation, tourism and peace in
investments in tourism and creating conditions, unlocking the
public-private partnerships and the high road for development in
Nepad, and tourism.
The meeting also discussed national programmes on the
principles established by the Global Code of Ethics for
To further cement tourism development between Zimbabwe and
delegation from Angola is expected in the country soon with a view
students from their country at local tourism
Meanwhile, Cde Nhema has appointed the new members of the
The move that is expected to
accelerate the long awaited deployment of
tourism attaches to traditional and
new markets to revive the lucrative
tourism sector has seen National Merchant
Bank deputy chief executive Mr
James Mushore will also r remain the chairman
of the board.
Long-serving member Mr Emmanuel Fundira was also retained
as deputy chairman
of the board.
Other members of the board include
hotelier and management consultant Mr
Genius Joel Maposa, Air Zimbabwe chief
executive Mr Rambai Chingwena and
Zimbabwe Sun leisure group chief executive
officer Mr Shingi Munyeza.
An executive director of Untamed Africa
Safaris Mr Tomuonga Chuma and
accountant Ms Hilda Agnes Mwamuka have also
been appointed board members
Real Interest Rates, Correction of the Yield Curve: Solutions to Cash
The Herald (Harare)
Posted to the web June 19, 2003
In a previous article, the cash crisis currently
gripping our country was
mentioned in passing with a particular emphasis on
the threat to the
viability of the financial sector.
Then, the crisis
was not as grave as it is.
As I write, at present, long winding queues at
ATMs and in banking halls are
the order of the day.
is the case in our economy, whenever there is a shortage
of any commodity, a
black market for that particular commodity looms.
Ironically, there is
already a thriving black market for Zimbabwe dollar
recently, a friend of mine intended to cash a cheque for $120 000.00
to pay one of the bank tellers at his bank $20 000.00 as kickback in
get the much needed cash.
In the end he had to settle for a $100 000.00
whilst the other $20 000.00
lined up the pockets of the greedy
Now, I would term this kind of scenario "a black market for cash"
someone is getting his funds at a premium when in normal
could have accessed the funds for free.
discussed the gravity of the crisis, I intend to offer my views on
how we can
find our way out of this, which threatens the whole financial
The shortage of cash has been largely blamed on the non -
foreign currency to buy the paper on which to print
Basic commodities black market dealers and parallel market foreign
dealers have also rightly not been spared from blame for causing
To solve the first problem, the RBZ has decided to
introduce a note of
bigger denomination (the proposed $1 000 note).
regards the second problem, banks have been tasked with restricting
withdrawals to paltry amounts a situation which is driving most
away from the financial system.
I recently overheard a depositor vowing
never to deposit his money into his
account after failing to meet his
obligations due to the shortage of cash.
But, are the remedies being
prescribed and implemented the correct
medication to cure the demand side of
the inflationary pressures that are
bedevilling our economy?
hit a record 300.1 percent at the end of May 2003 and with the
shortage of foreign currency, fuel shortages, persistent power
reduced agricultural output, is forecast to rise further.
Now with this
in mind, as I have said before, consumers will always spend
Besides the stock and property markets, there is no other
market, which provides a hedge against
The real returns on the money and capital markets are negative
by more than
The marginal propensity to consume in a
country where there are commodity
shortages is unacceptably high.
demand for money has to be stemmed and one of the ways to do so is
introducing real rate of returns on the local money market. As long
investors are guaranteed of a hedge against inflation, then money will
back to the banking system.
Otherwise, what we have is a
classical version of "self-induced too much
money chasing too few
Some would argue that the government already reeling under a $360
debt would be hurt most by a surge in rates but remember debt
gradual whilst a run on the banks is spontaneous and has far
consequences than a rise in government debt.
productive borrowing, remember there is the revolving fund where
and producers can borrow at concessionary rates of 5 percent and
Real rate of returns would also effectively wipe out
speculative borrowing in the process reducing the aggregate
demand in the
You wouldn't use the overdraft facility at your
bank at a charge of 280
percent would you, unless if really necessary of
For a long time now, the RBZ has distorted the yield curve or
should I say
induced the money market to operate ultra-vires the interest
Interest rate theory stipulates that rates of return should
be higher on
longer investment periods and lower on short investment
However, it is the reverse on the local market with investors
higher yields on the shorter term and lower on the longer- term.
might be wondering what this has to do with the shortage of notes in
The simple fact is that the distortion of the yield curve has
short term financial decision making.
Investments are made
and mature so soon that the previously invested funds
are soon in the hands
of the public.
This tends to increase the amount of cash held by the
public at any given
point in time which indirectly increases the marginal
propensity to consume.
In order to reign in on short term financial
decision making, rates should
be induced to be more attractive on the long
term in order to compensate the
investor for the deferred use of his money
over a longer period, inflation
and default risk which increases in
proportion to the length of the
Consumers should have a
long term view of their funds and investments and
there is need to correct
the yield curve if this goal is to be achieved.
In my view an
implementation of these market fundamentals applied in the
correct dosages of
course would go a long way in averting this crisis which
becoming the new Achilles hill to our economy.
A run on the banks is
Contact First Mutual Regional Financial Advisers
Shepherd Shambira 091 252 639
Onias Gweru 091 233
Sofia Kara 011 219 347
l This article is published
for general investment advice and it must be
noted that the price of equities
and the income derived from them can rise
as well as fall. Neither First
Mutual Asset Management nor the author shall
be held liable for any losses as
a result of the investment advice contained
in this article. It is important
that specific investment advice is sought
as each investor's investment will
be dependent on their circumstances.
Good Harvest Prompts Zambia to Dismantle Relief
LUSAKA, Jun 19 (IPS) - Zambian President
Levy Mwanawasa has dismantled
relief centres and stopped maize import,
following good harvest this season.
Mwanawasa said farmers have produced
1.1 million metric tonnes of maize
grain, close to the 1.2 million metric
tonnes Zambia requires annually.
”The figure is likely to reach 1.5
million tonnes since some farmers are
still harvesting their crops,” said
Mwanawasa while inspecting farms in
Chisamba, a town some 80 kilometres north
of the capital Lusaka, this week.
The good harvest has been attributed to
the favourable weather conditions in
the last farming season, coupled with
the positive response by farmers to
grow more food crops.
the World Food Programme (WFP) sent an urgent appeal to donors to
assistance to some 13 million people - threatened with starvation -
southern Africa, until this year's harvest.
More than 2.3 million of
those starving were from Zambia -- where the
traditional maize belt of
southern province, where an estimated 60 percent
of the population required
relief aid, was the hardest hit.
Prolonged drought and flooding in most
parts of the country, coupled with
poor agricultural management, saw eight of
Zambia's nine provinces recording
maize deficits last year.
a projected maize deficit of around 626,000 metric tonnes until
year, with commercial importers bringing in 351,000 metric tonnes
according to the WFP. The remaining shortfalls of 275,000 metric
covered by government and donor aid.
The recipients included some 250,000
refugees from war-torn Angola and the
Democratic Republic of Congo
Last year's shortages caused food prices to soar by more than 300
some cases, putting an even greater strain on people living with
and the family members struggling to care for them.
decline in agriculture output last year led to food shortfalls, which
were reflected in the rise in annual inflation rate of 26.7 percent
percent at the end of 2001,” says a financial commentator
The food shortages caused Zambia's economy to grow by only
3 percent last
year against the projected 6 percent growth, after the 4.9
percent growth in
Since farmers started harvesting their crops,
prices of food have been
falling. A snap survey conducted by IPS in Lusaka
showed that a
25-kilogramme bag of maize meal which used to cost 45,000
ZamKwacha (10 U.S.
dollars) three months ago is now fetching half that
The central Bank of Zambia says the availability of food on the
triggered the monthly rate of inflation to fall three months in a
”At 0.2 percent, the Apr. monthly inflation rate was 0.6 percentage
lower than the previous month's rate,” says the bank in its latest
Financial Markets Review report just released.
has enough food and will not import this year, the agriculture
expected to contribute significantly to the country's Gross
(GDP) through export of surplus crops.
Zimbabwe, where seven million
people need food aid, has already indicated
its desire to import maize from
Zambia to meet shortfall. The food shortage
in Zimbabwe has its roots in the
country's controversial land reform
programme. Under the programme, which was
implemented between 2000 and 2002,
the government of President Robert Mugabe
seized land from 4,500 white
commercial farmers for redistribution to
The white farmers used to produce the bulk of Zimbabwe's
But Zimbabwe may have to wait a little longer to start
importing as Zambia
is holding on to its crops. ”Maize exports should be
considered only after
meeting the local demand,” warns Ajay Vashee, president
of the Zambia
National Farmers Union.
Zambia, with a population of
around 11 million, banned the export of maize,
the country's staple food, at
the peak of the food shortages last year.
CHRA STATEMENT ON THE PROPOSED INCREASES IN RATES AND
recognizes the constraints imposed upon the operations of the Municipality by
the macro-economic realities of Zimbabwe and by the Ministry of Local
Government. With inflation running at over 270% (officially but actually much
more) and with a punitive increase in foreign currency rates from Z$60 to $850
to the US dollar (an effective devaluation of over 1300%), it is unrealistic to
expect our Council to adhere to any budget drawn up in 2002. The proposed tariff
increases will not even result in full cost recovery however and we cannot
expect any improvement in the provision of services: at most, the City may be
able to stem the decline in service delivery.
these parameters, however, residents have a right to expect a number of
· We wish to
see an end to the political interference by the central government in the
affairs of our elected council. The blatant attempts by the Minister to
undermine the efforts of our Mayor and Council to rectify years of mismanagement
must cease and our elected officials must be allowed to pursue the policies of
transparent and accountable local government for which they were elected.
Council must pursue legal action to limit this unwarranted interference and put
an end to the political wrangling that is undermining the core business of
must be allowed to borrow finance to implement capital projects that are
desperately needed such as upgrading the water reticulation
must be compelled through legal action to settle their
provision of potable water is a key aspect of the well being of residents.
Council must maintain a social provision of basic water needs but beyond this,
full cost recovery must be implemented. Punitive rates for excessive usage by
gardeners, industry, and business should be instituted.
· There must
be a complete and thorough audit of municipal employees. A time and motion study
should be implemented to improve efficiency and management. The municipal wage
bill must be reduced substantially by staff reductions coupled with improved
conditions for retained staff to improve productivity. The wage bill should be
set to a percentage of expenditure. The current attritional approach to
is inefficient and undermines the functioning of the
must be implemented to limit the provision of services to non-residents who use
of Harare's facilities but do not contribute to its financial well being. Health
and other services provided by Council must be for the benefit of residents, not
rural visitors. If necessary, a residents' tax may need to be imposed. At
present 65% of rates income goes to the health services - this is not
regard to non-essential services, unproductive and costly operations must be
discontinued or commercialized: eg,
Parking account is a disaster and costs far more to operate than warranted. The
current on-street parking system needs to be revised. Parking arcades should be
commercialized. Traffic fines are no longer effective in controlling traffic and
fine recovery is minimal.
Municipal Police service should be disbanded as recommended by the Thompson
· Mbare Bus
terminus should be commercialized and adequate enforcement of by-laws
implemented to ensure that busses utilize the facility instead of parking
must be enforced to re-establish respect for the law. Municipal courts are
essential for the efficient enforcement of by-laws and Council must look at the
mechanics of establishing these.
of revenue collection and expenditure as well as decision-making to local
district offices coupled with increased interaction with residents associations
must be a priority goal. This will result in greater community participation and
increased accountability of officials and elected
accept the need for the supplementary budget, Council must not regard residents
as an endless source of funding. The increases will add to the already
intolerable burdens of residents in the city. Many residents have already
expressed discontent with the perceived failure of Council to address their
immediate concerns such as waste removal, street cleaning, enforcement of
by-laws, and other areas of their lives. If no tangible benefits result in the
near future, residents will be reluctant to acquiesce in future
Combined Harare Residents
PO Box HR 7840