The ZIMBABWE Situation Our thoughts and prayers are with Zimbabwe
- may peace, truth and justice prevail.

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" When you come to the end of everything you know
And are faced with the darkness of the unknown,
Faith is knowing one of two things will happen.
Either there will be something solid for you to stand on,
Or you will be taught how to fly."
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Press Release No. 03/80
June 6, 2003
International Monetary Fund
700 19th Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20431 USA

IMF Suspends Zimbabwe's Voting and Related Rights

The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has suspended Zimbabwe's voting and related rights, after having determined that Zimbabwe had not sufficiently strengthened its cooperation with the IMF in areas of policy implementation and payments. As a result of today's decision, Zimbabwe can no longer appoint a Governor or Alternate Governor to the IMF, participate in the election of an Executive Director for its Board, or cast its vote in decisions on IMF policy or country matters.

Economic and social conditions in Zimbabwe have deteriorated progressively over the past four years. Real output has dropped by one-third, inflation has reached 270 percent in the year through April 2003, and welfare and poverty indicators have deteriorated. The Zimbabwean authorities introduced some policy measures since early 2003 to arrest the decline in economic activity, including a devaluation of the exchange rate of the Zimbabwean dollar from Z$55 per U.S. dollar to Z$824 per U.S. dollar for most transactions, adjustments in fuel and electricity tariffs, rolling back price controls, and raising interest rates moderately. However, the authorities have not adopted the comprehensive and consistent policies needed to address Zimbabwe's serious economic problems.

Zimbabwe has been in continuous arrears to the IMF since February 2001. As of end-May 2003, Zimbabwe's arrears to the IMF amounted to SDR 164.9 million (US$233 million), or about 47 percent of its quota in the IMF.

The suspension of a member's voting and related rights is one in a series of escalating remedial measures that the IMF applies to members that fail to meet their obligations under its Articles of Agreement. On September 24, 2001, Zimbabwe was declared ineligible to use IMF's general resources and was removed from the list of countries eligible to use resources under the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (see Press Release No. 01/40). On June 13, 2002, the Executive Board adopted a declaration of non-cooperation with respect to Zimbabwe and suspended all technical assistance to the country (see Press Release No. 02/28). On September 11, 2002, the Executive Board agreed to initiate the procedure to suspend Zimbabwe's voting and related rights in the IMF.

The Fund urged the authorities to build on their recent efforts to strengthen cooperation. The staff is ready to continue assisting the authorities. The Fund would support the reinstatement of voting rights if Zimbabwe improves its cooperation on economic policies and payments. The Executive Board will review Zimbabwe's overdue financial obligations to the IMF again within six months of the date of this decision.

Additional information on how the IMF deals with overdue financial obligations is available in Chapter V of Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF (IMF Pamphlet Series No. 45, 6th ed., 2001). This publication is also available on the IMF's external website at

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      06 Jun 2003 16:29 BST

      Tsvangirai poses threat to Mugabe

      HARARE (Reuters) - Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai,
detained twice this week amid anti-government protests, is a fiery trade
unionist who poses the first serious threat to President Robert Mugabe's
23-year grip on power.
      Tsvangirai, head of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), is
considered by his supporters and some Western governments as Zimbabwe's only
immediate hope of ending a spiral of economic decline coupled with
escalating unrest.

      But analysts say the former union leader is woolly on policy and lacks
the experience to rebuild what was once a showcase African economy.

      His judgment has also been questioned after a videotape controversy
that led to his current trial on treason charges for an alleged plot to
assassinate Mugabe.

      A secretly recorded video purported to show him discussing Mugabe's
assassination with security consultants in Canada ahead of the 2002
presidential election. But Tsvangirai says he was framed and his comments
taken out of context.

      Tsvangirai was briefly detained on Monday as his supporters launched a
series of mass protests dubbed the "final push" to oust Mugabe. On Friday he
was arrested again, shortly after holding a news conference to call for more

      Tsvangirai accuses Mugabe of stealing the 2002 presidential election
and says the veteran African leader is the main impediment to economic

      "Please (Mugabe) why don't you go now? Because if you remain in power
this economy will never recover. And if you wait too long to go, it will get
too dark to find your way out," Tsvangirai said in the runup to the

      Tsvangirai's working-class roots could scarcely be more different from
his rival's background.

      Seventy-nine-year-old Mugabe led the dominant military force of the
Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) in the long war against white
minority rule. He boasts a string of university degrees.

      Tsvangirai, 51, is self-taught beyond a basic high school education.
The son of a bricklayer worked in a rural mine to support his family and cut
his political teeth in the labour movement while working as a mine foreman.

      In 1988, he became full-time secretary general of the Zimbabwe
Congress of Trade Unions. Under his leadership, the federation broke ranks
with Mugabe's ZANU-PF.


      In December 1997, Tsvangirai led a series of strikes against tax
increases and twice forced Mugabe to withdraw announced hikes. With labour
backing, Tsvangirai helped to found the MDC in 1999.

      In February 2000, the movement showed its strength by engineering
Mugabe's first poll defeat -- the rejection in a national referendum of
proposed constitutional changes that would further have entrenched his
presidential power.

      In June of that year, despite killings and police intimidation, the
MDC stunned the ruling party by winning 57 of the 120 seats at stake in a
parliamentary election.

      Tsvangirai captivated the public with powerful speeches, but political
analysts say he is weak on policy and detail.

      During a tour of European capitals after the MDC was born,
Tsvangirai's grasp of policy did not impress. Analysts say some doubts
remain, but Tsvangirai has worked hard to build relations with Western

      "He has grasped that Zimbabwe needs to cooperate, he's talked about a
more transparent land programme, repairing relations with foreign donors and
fighting corruption," said Ross Herbert of the South African Institute of
International Affairs.

      "The general view is that anyone would be better than the present
leadership in Zimbabwe."

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Tsvangirai to remain in custody
06/06/2003 19:02  - (SA)

Harare - Zimbabwe police Friday arrested opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai
and charged him with treason at the end of a week of mass protests against
President Robert Mugabe's government.

Tsvangirai was arrested at his home and taken to a police station in central
Harare on the last day of mass anti-government protests, an official for the
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) said.

His lawyer, Innocent Chagonda said he had been charged with treason for
"organising and holding rallies urging his supporters to take to the streets
to overthrow President Robert Mugabe."

He said the 51-year-old opposition leader would remain in custody for the
time being.

The arrest and treason charge came on the day the MDC had called for a last
concerted push by its supporters to show their anger against the government.

The party had set Friday as "D-Day" and called for people to "rise up in
your millions" in street marches in cities around the country.

The party blames the government for chronic economic hardships and
widespread shortages affecting most Zimbabweans. Around 80 percent of the
country's 11.6 million people live in poverty, and inflation is officially
at 269%.

But although most shops and businesses were closed in central Harare on
Friday, scores of ruling party supporters and state security agents ensured
no marches got off the ground.

Ruling party youths ripped up copies of the private Daily News newspaper,
which is highly critical of the government. Police, swinging batons were
also out in full force to quell would-be demonstrators.

The government had obtained a court order declaring this week's mass action
illegal. And it again went to court again to enforce that order, following
an appeal lodged by the MDC.

Hundreds of opposition supporters and officials, including lawmakers have
been arrested and some of them beaten, the party has claimed.

Rolling mass action

Shortly before his arrest, Tsvangirai had condemned the state's show of
force, and vowed his party would press on with mass action.

He claimed that Mugabe could no longer be called a "civilian president".

"His power now lies completely in the forces of repression," he told
reporters and diplomats at a press conference.

Tsvangirai added that although his party wanted to help solve the country's
problems through dialogue, it would not back down from its calls for mass
action against the government.

"From now on we will embark on rolling mass action at strategic times of our
choice without any warning to the dictatorship," he said. "More action is
certainly on the way."

Meanwhile, in the country's second city of Bulawayo meaningful mass
demonstrations failed to gain momentum. Hundreds of police and military
patrolled the streets, according to a correspondent there.

Mugabe and his government have defended the use of force to suppress the
street protests, saying it was meant to ensure peace and stability in the
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Independent (UK)

Repression on the streets, but for how long can Mugabe stave off a revolt?
By Basildon Peta, Southern Africa Correspondent
07 June 2003

Military helicopters circled over Harare's skies and ruling-party militiamen
flooded into the city, taking up positions alongside soldiers and
paramilitary police.

Army trucks and four-wheel-drives patrolled the streets, dispersing even the
smallest groups, while packs of armed ruling Zanu-PF enforcers wearing white
T-shirts emblazoned with the words "No to mass action" roamed the city.

Yesterday had been billed as the climax of a week of opposition strikes and
protests aimed at ending the rule of the President, Robert Mugabe. The
general strike succeeded in shutting down Zimbabwe's already collapsing
economy. At least two protesters were killed and hundreds wounded.

Faced yesterday with the unmistakable signs of a peaceful revolution in the
making, the 79-year-old President tried to crush it by deploying the biggest
police, military and paramilitary operation since independence in 1980.

The opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) had called on
Zimbabweans to gather "in their millions" at designated centres around the
country and to march peacefully. Morgan Tsvangirai, the MDC leader, was
arrested for the second time in a week and charged with treason.

And, in an unprecedented act of repression, Mr Mugabe deployed more than
2,000 armed ruling-party henchmen around the capital to intimidate opponents
and quash the risk of a "Yugoslavia-style" overthrow. The young thugs, known
as "green bombers", are notorious. Trained in military-style camps run by
the ruling party, they are accused of some of the most heinous human rights
abuses in Zimbabwe. Scores of opponents of the regime have been raped and
tortured at their camps.

The presence of the militias in the streets of the capital yesterday helped
to keep most protesters at home. But the scale of the security operation
also exposed Mr Mugabe as a tyrant who is now clinging to power by force.
His land reform policies are blamed for severe food shortages, inflation of
nearly 300 per cent, more than 70 per cent unemployment and violence that
has led to the deaths of hundreds of people in the past few years.

The extraordinary scenes in the capital were an indication for many, in
Zimbabwe and other African capitals where Mr Mugabe has enjoyed support,
that the end-game has begun for his regime.

The treason charge against Mr Tsvangirai carries a mandatory death penalty.
Wayne Bvudzijena, police spokesman, said the security forces had "no option"
but to charge him because of his "continued defiance of the law and his
determination to cause chaos".

He added: "He has called for protests to overthrow President Mugabe in
defiance of the law. We have to maintain law and order."

But the charge reflected Mr Mugabe's determination to end the political
career of a rival who this week demonstrated his power to mobilise enough
support to shut down the economy. Mr Tsvangirai is already on trial on
separate treason charges connected to an alleged plot to kill the President.
He has vehemently denied these charges but it is now considered hard for him
to win all the cases he is facing.

Mr Tsvangirai was still in custody last night, and the regime seems
determined to prevent him from fanning the flames of mass anger against Mr
Mugabe's rule. Mr Bvudzijena said the police would only release Mr
Tsvangirai "after finishing our investigations". Lovemore Madhuku, professor
of law at the University of Zimbabwe, said: "The logic seems to be, 'If we
don't get him on one treason charge, we will definitely get him on

Although the President relied on his feared security apparatus including
rifle butts, volleys of live fire, tear gas and water cannon to prevent
people from massing in the streets, he must now come to terms with the
message sent by the many people who for five days defied his orders to go to
work. This was a clear victory for the opposition, which had told people to
stay at home if they were prevented from marching. State media bulletins
urging the people to report for duty, and an assortment of threats against
those who opted to stay at home, fell on deaf ears.

Even Mr Mugabe's supporters admit he cannot rely on his army and youth
militias indefinitely and that in the face of sustained civil disobedience,
he may have to opt for a dignified exit strategy.

Charles Muchagonei, an activist, was beaten by militias as he tried to get
to a venue for the marches yesterday. "Who said hell is somewhere out there
in the universe? It is right here in Zimbabwe" he said.

Hundreds of opposition supporters were arrested. "We have managed to bring
calm and we will keep on arresting those who commit offences," the police
spokesman said.

Mr Tsvangirai was first arrested on Monday for defying a court order to call
off the protests. Before his rearrest he vowed the mass action would

"Through peaceful mass action, the people of Zimbabwe delivered a mortal
blow to the dictator.From now onwards we will embark on rolling mass action
at strategic times of our choice and without any warning," he said.

"More action is certainly on the way."


Monday 2 June

Centre of Harare shut down by strike. Police fire shots to disperse crowds
marking start of week of "mass action" demanding an end to Robert Mugabe's
rule. Morgan Tsvangirai, leader of the opposition Movement for Democratic
Change, arrested and charged with contempt of court. Six opposition MPs
arrested. Three students feared dead.

Tuesday 3 June

Violence in Harare worsens as security forces brutally assault protesters.
Across the country riot police use tear gas and soldiers in armoured cars
fire guns to disperse demonstrators. Two hundred people try to march on
Bulawayo but are forced to flee.

Wednesday 4 June

Schools and universities closed. Most businesses remain shut. Policemen raid
a hospital and take away people they had beaten earlier. The MDC reports the
first death of a supporter, Tichaona Kaguru, after being tortured by the

Thursday 5 June

Businesses remain shut despite Mr Mugabe's threats. He calls an emergency
meeting of his Zanu-PF's decision-making politburo. It vows to "teach
Tsvangirai and his MDC a lesson". The MDC calls on Zimbabweans to assemble
"in their millions" at designated centres on the final day of the march.

Friday 6 June

Mr Tsvangirai arrested and charged with treason as riot police, soldiers and
ruling-party militants flood Harare to foil climax of protest. Troops
deployed across the country. Mr Tsvangirai promises more protests.
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Zvakwana Newsletter #33
The sound of gunfire will never silence their demand for change and freedom
June 06, 2003

"Come to the edge."
"We can't. We're afraid."
"Come to the edge."
"We can't. We will fall!"
"Come to the edge."
And they came.
And He pushed them.
And they flew.
~ Guillaume Apollinaire

Thanks for dreaming
This was the title of one of the many emails that Zvakwana has been receiving today. We can take this two ways. The writer was suggesting that the idea of the march today was too ambitious. Or we can say that yes! it is good to dream. For without ideals, dreams and ambition we are but empty vessels with no aspirations and no commitment to bettering our lives. There were many pro-democracy supporters in Harare town centre today ready to participate in the gathering for peace and freedom. They must be congratulated for refusing to meet the zanu militia head on. zanu pf were therefore deprived of the bloodbath that they were hoping for. Varied and sustained non-violent campaign will wear down zanu pf; of this you can be sure.

In the constant confrontation between the rock and the water, the water wins finally, not by strength, but by perseverance.
~ Anonymous

Morgan Tsvangirai arrested on Friday afternoon
Shortly after Tsvangirai gave a press conference today he was arrested for inciting violence. The police allege that during rallies held in the month of May, Tsvangirai made statements inciting the people to demonstrate violently. In his press conference today, Tsvangirai said:

From Monday, June 2, up to today June 6, Mugabe was not in charge of this country. He was busy marshalling his forces of repression against the sovereign will of the people of Zimbabwe. However, even in the context of the brutalities inflicted upon them, the people's spirit of resistance was not broken and the jackboot or the sound of gunfire will never silence their demand for change and freedom.

Africa Unity Square in Harare on Friday 6th June
Zimbabweans moving into Harare town centre today witnessed zanu pf youth militia occupying nearly every street intersection as well as being encamped on traffic islands. These youth are being used by the mugabe regime and in the process they are being dehumanised. Many of them were less than 20 years of age. Side by side with the militia were zanu pf riot police. As 10 am approached, the militia left their stations and made their way to Africa Unity Square that they took over in a threatening manner.

Picture: just one of the many, many groups of zanu pf youth militia being led by their "baas"

Where did these people come from? Reports from victims of indiscriminate violence in Harare this week have said that they are strangers from outside of the city. On Sunday, June 1st, at least 6 brand new Zupco buses were seen ferrying youth into Harare from Marondera. Many eyewitnesses have reported large numbers of young men based at zpf's shake shaking building since at least Monday this week. Much violence began once these thugs were deployed across the city.

Zvakwana is asking for information regarding which company printed these t:shirts and who provided the stock. Write to

"If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next"
If we as Zimbabweans do not collectively participate in actions to expel the mugabe regime, it is likely that our children will:

Change demands action. Are you sitting on the wire?

Sights and sounds during the day

Many obstacles for the opposition, and YOU as a pro-democracy activist to overcome

As you are seeing from what has been mentioned, today it was very difficult for Zimbabweans to face this show of force from mugabe's employees. We must remember though that mugabe is playing a short term game. Yes, he would be wise to let people exercise their democratic right to assemble and to protest peacefully because when you suppress these democratic rights, you drive the movement underground and it becomes even more determined and more cunning than before. Zvakwana is everywhere.

Police refuse basic rights of prisoners
Police treatment of people arrested during the week of mass action June 2-6 has been shocking. Part of the pre-trial punishment has been the withholding of food from detainees. In a number of incidents family members have been arrested for attempting to provide their relatives with food. Human rights activists trying to provide this basic humanitarian service have been threatened with imprisonment. On June 5th human rights activists Jenni Williams and Sheba Dube-Phiri in the company of human rights lawyers, Trevor Ndebele and Kosam Ncube tried to get food to prisoners in Bulawayo. Read about their experience at

Bulawayo Church Service
CIO and Senior Army Officers arrived at St Mary's cathedral and spoke to Archbishop Pius Ncube in advance of the planned church service for Justice and Peace. These agents of the state were reported to have been in a very intimidating mood. This interview continued for half an hour. The Archbishop was instructed not to march after the service and told that there were to be not politics in the church, no political slogans, posters or dress denoting politics of any kind. When the PA system was being installed, the Security Forces then demanded that it be taken down. The situation is tense as prayer time nears.
Sent in at 13:30 hours

The service did not fall under the proscriptions of POSA because it was a religious event and although the police had spent half an hour with Pius attempting to dictate the terms of the word of God they would not stop things from going on. Very slowly the church filled and continued to do so till almost the end of the service and by then the 500 seater was just about full with only three pews in the Lady Chapel left empty. Pius started the vigil by giving the terms under which the police wanted the service to take place. No party regalia and various embargoes on what could be said and what could not be said and then proceeded to defy all in what he himself said about our evil and satanic regime. No testimonies were given as we have previously had and those in the congregation who were invited to come forward - as they have willingly done before - were too scared to do so today. As we joined hands for the Our Father a lone helicopter circled overhead. We sang Inkosi Sikelele Africa and slowly the MDC open hands were raised in a most moving display of confidence in the sanctuary which the church so freely gives to all who are persecuted. Few, if any, would have dared to do this outside the walls of St Mary's. The lesson read by Kingsly Dube was the Nazara proclamation - Luke 4. "I come to set the captives free!"
From a Bulawayo subscriber

Brave students in Harare are leading the way

Two accounts from students at the University of Zimbabwe

Story 1
I just wanted to give info to zvakwana and hopefully you will be able to act on it. Firstly the number of casualties at the U.Z. is 45, this is the official number of students that we have been able to ascertain as having been injured in the Monday protests. There are however three students who at the moment are missing, there have been sms that have been saying that these three are dead. I can neither confirm nor deny that but what i know for sure is that they are missing. A semblance of the damage done and human rights violations by the police and army can be found in room G4 new complex 5, also known as Baghdad at the UZ. The room is spluttered with blood, the mattress is partially burnt. I was there this morning and wished I had a camera. If someone can access the room they can be able to testify, the occupant of the room is still unknown to me as of now, but I am trying to establish that. Sad stories can also be heard from the several female and male students about the amount of brutality wrought on them by these state agents.

Story 2
Pliz come to UZ and see the amount of destruction caused by these uniformed forces of Zimbabwe. Doors of our residence were vandalised, so many students were beaten up and got injured in the process, some of them sustaining severe injuries and are now hospitalised. Our food was looted, properties like cellphones destroyed! Taikandirwa mateargas mumarooms edu kuti tibude, tirohwe, misuwo ichipazwa tichiponderwa imomo! These guys were really dressed for mass killing!

Photograph shows a broken door in Manfred Hostel at the University of Zimbabwe campus in Harare.

Threatening letters placed under doors of shops in Borrowdale
Zvakwana was informed that some shop owners are receiving the following hate mail. What should you do? Get together as business leaders and discuss a strategy. Give each other support. Keep these letters as evidence. Do not be intimidated. This is divisive zanu pf behaviour engineered by mad moyo.

Mass Action Against Unrepentant White Rhodesians

* For A Long Time We Have Been Registering The Houses Of All Racist Former White Rhodesians

* Now The Mass Action Will Be Directed To Your Door Steps

* Prepare For Tear Gas, Destruction Of Properties

* You Have Enjoyed Enough

* Prepare To Run, If You Don't Stop The MDC Hooliganism

* We Are No Longer Kefas

Bits and pieces

Thank you for all your feedback, suggestions, ideas and courage.

Zvakwana newsletters
During the Week of Action Zvakwana made some great effort to keep Zimbabwean email subscribers informed about events as they happened on the ground. We would like to thank the many Zvakwana activists out there who sent in pictures and stories as well as tips for us to chase up and report on. We will continue to keep in touch especially with breaking news but not so often as before. Besides doing this newsletter, we are also working to change the government. Watch this space (state house) for a new occupant before too long. Or maybe we just make it into a museum. Chefs from either party shouldn't need such big mansions. Don't you think?

Visit our website at

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Mugabe worm gnaws the life from Zimbabwe

David Hopps at the Riverside
Saturday June 7, 2003
The Guardian

Zimbabwe's cricketers will insist for a lifetime that they are not
representatives of Robert Mugabe's tyrannical regime but they can no longer
feign that they are immune to its consequences.
Richard Johnson deserves recognition for a startling bowling debut - the
fourth best in English Test history - but it came against a country whose
cricketing stock is falling as fast as the Zimbabwe dollar. This is a side
that is fast becoming unworthy of Test status.

Zimbabwe's players might try to close the dressing room door on the
injustices of their nation, some of which have brought fear and horror to
their own friends and families. They might strive to maintain a unity, black
and white alike, in the most trying times, hoping that one day soon they
will awake to discover the Mugabe nightmare is over and begin a painful
rebuilding process.

But the Mugabe worm is among them, too, weakening them at every turn. A
Zimbabwe side once respected for efficiency and bloody-mindedness has
succumbed to naivety and hopelessness. Geoff Marsh, their Australian coach,
bemoaned: "Our boys are just not used to this standard."

Johnson, a dependable professional deserving of his chance, was the
benefactor of their confusion. A Durham crowd initially hoping that the
local boy, Steve Harmison, would be given the new ball, met the announcement
of Johnson's name in silence. Midway through his first over, after Mark
Vermeulen and Stuart Carlisle had fallen in successive balls, they were
roaring him on to a possible hat-trick. A hint of outswing, and a nibble the
other way off the seam, and this Test cricket lark seemed a doddle.

"I tried to swing the ball away but it just wasn't happening, so Nasser told
me to bowl straight. It was probably not a 94-all-out wicket but you get
silly days like this in cricket."

Zimbabwe's situation is not as much silly as desperate. Over the past five
years an entire side has departed, and the cricketing stock from which once
they might have been replaced has shrunk to subsistence levels. The
consequences of Zimbabwe's political madness are irresistible.

Andy Flower and Henry Olonga, black-armband protesters in the World Cup,
entered retirement in a blaze of publicity but there have been countless

Murray Goodwin and Neil Johnson left three years ago, encouraged by their
wives, to seek a better lifestyle in Australia and South Africa
respectively. Scott Brant, a young left-arm fast bowler, chose Queensland
and Essex after his family moved to Australia. Ryan Watson is making his
name as a batsman for Scottish Saltires.

They have lost eight successive Tests and only rain is likely to prevent a
ninth today. Bangladesh have lost a record 11 in a row, with Cairns and
Darwin to come, but Bangladesh, stricken by floods and occasionally famine,
still possesses one essential ingredient: hope.

Three England bowlers have bettered Johnson's display by taking seven
first-innings wickets on debut. The Surrey pair of Alec Bedser and Jim Laker
achieved it just after the war but the best return came from John Lever,
Essex's smooth left-arm swing bowler, who took seven for 46 against India in
Delhi on the 1976-77 tour.

Johnson might reflect on the oddity that the greatest Test debuts have been
followed largely by disappointment. Bob Massie, a burly Australian, swung
the ball prodigiously both ways at Lord's when he took 16 wickets against
England in 1972. He played only five more Tests and never again took five
wickets in his career.

When Narendra Hirwani, a bespectacled Indian leg-spinner, took eight in each
innings against West Indies at Madras 16 years later, his world-record 16
for 136 led India to imagine him the great wrist spinner that Shane Warne
was later to become. But his career lasted only 17 Tests.

Johnson also reaped the benefit of five of the seven lbw decisions, a record
for a Test innings. Dickie Bird was once partly responsible for the world
record of 17 lbws in a match, in Trinidad in 1993, the same Dickie Bird who
spent half-an-hour trapped in a lift at the Riverside on Thursday.

"It's stairs for me from now on," vowed Bird yesterday. Johnson, though, for
the next few days at least, will be walking on air.

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Mugabe's brutal regime approaches a bloody conclusion
By Tim Butcher in the townships of western Bulawayo
(Filed: 07/06/2003)

By moving so violently against peaceful demonstrators in Zimbabwe this week,
Robert Mugabe has made sure the endgame of his regime will be bloody and

This was the message from the townships of Bulawayo and the hinterland of
Matabeleland where hatred of Mr Mugabe runs almost but not quite deep enough
for people to take on his police, army and security forces.

"Non-violence is no longer an option in this country," Vusa Kunene, a
well-educated but under-employed carpenter, explained in a friend's crowded
shack in the township of Tshabalala.

"They had made sure of that now but here it is not like other countries
where they use water cannon on you if you take to the streets.

"Here the police just beat you and beat you. There is nothing to stop them
from killing you and I am scared."

He was not exaggerating but his fear explained why millions in Zimbabwe
heeded the Opposition call for a week-long general strike but few followed
the call for street protests and marches.

At this stage in the Zimbabwe crisis, the fear of brutality by security
forces outweighs the general hatred of the regime. It is a situation that
many in the opposition Movement for Democratic Change think will be reversed

Bulawayo's tree-lined avenues, carefully laid out in colonial times to be
wide enough to allow an oxcart to turn round, were patrolled all week by
riot police and armed soldiers peeping out from under steel helmets.

Their camouflaged jackets helped to conceal them against the trunks of the
jacaranda trees but the gun metal grey of their assault rifle barrels stood
out rudely among the mothers pushing prams and hawkers selling newspapers.
An army helicopter clattered noisily overhead, a clumsy display of force by
the regime, and an assortment of trucks and other security vehicles were
parked at strategic junctions.

Pre-emptive strikes by the security forces had already filled the holding
cells of Bulawayo's central police station to overflowing with sympathisers
loyal to the opposition Movement for Democratic Change. Defence lawyers told
of how they were beaten up by the police as they asked to interview clients.

So many people were taken prisoner in overnight swoops that temporary
holding cells had to be set up at the Stops Camp, once an officers' club
during colonial times but now a notorious torture centre.

Police checkpoints were set up on all approach roads to Tshabalala and other
western townships which have been turned by overcrowded conditions and
miserable job prospects into breeding grounds for the Movement's support and
hatred of Mr Mugabe.

Vehicles were stopped, passengers searched and ID documents demanded in a
police crackdown not dissimilar to the worst excesses of the security forces
under white rule.

Vusa and his neighbours dared not venture from their homes after sunset
following swoops at night by armed police.

In the city centre, riot police played cat and mouse with suspected
Opposition loyalists. Whenever a group of more than a dozen or so assembled
at a street corner, police would appear in large numbers only for the
"disaffected youth" to disperse.

"I support the stayaway but the ruling party makes it difficult because they
are linked with many employers," said Baillie Nkomo, 21, from the townships.
"They threaten to take your job away if you do not turn up to work at some
state-owned firms."

The week-long stayaway marked a significant change of tactic for the
Opposition which spent three years challenging Mr Mugabe's regime through
the courts. "We found he was foiling us at every turn," said David Coltart,
the movement's shadow justice minister.

"Violence is not what we are encouraging but the time has come for the
people to show, through mass action, what they feel of a brutal regime that
ignores every aspect of the rule of law."
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