Charlene May & Aisha Hamdulay 2 May 2019
Unpaid care work refers to domestic and physical care work generally done
in the running of a household or care of a family – this includes meal
preparation, cleaning of the home, laundry, collecting water and firewood;
as well as physically caring for the elderly, the young and the frail
within the community and home.
We group these tasks together in recognition that although the motivation
to perform these tasks is voluntary, the reality is that outside of the
home these tasks are viewed as work deserving of remuneration, however, in
the home and community they are generally expected to be done by women and
girls within our homes and communities for free.
On average, according to Statistics South Africa’s latest data from 2011,
black women carry out roughly 2,5 times the amount of unpaid care work
than males do, while Indian women carry out almost 4 times more the amount
of unpaid care work that men do.
This work carries no formal financial value (unless you are employed as a
domestic worker and if you are fortunate enough to be gainfully employed
by an employer who recognises the financial value of the work that you do
within their home and you are compensated accordingly), and remains
Our reality is that across the world, women and girls commit substantially
more time than their male counterparts to unpaid care work.
The impact of non-recognition and the devaluation of women’s unpaid care
work leaves women in a deeper position of vulnerability and poverty.
Structural discrimination which is present in our homes, communities and
places of work all contribute to the lack of recognition assigned to
women’s unpaid care work.
Discrimination within the current economic value chain leads to men being
paid more than women in the labour market outside of their homes, leaving
women dependant on their male counterparts within their family units for
their financial wellbeing, while they carry out unpaid care work. Through
this dependence, women become vulnerable to poverty, but also domestic
A woman who is experiencing domestic violence from a partner whom she is
financially dependent on, while carrying out unpaid care work, is
reluctant to seek help against her partner because she will be left
financially vulnerable once separated.
Solidarity can therefore be found in the recognition and reduction of
unpaid care work – in both developed as well as developing countries. It
is important to recognise the role that patriarchy and discrimination
plays in how women are viewed, their contribution to the household, the
economic value that their work holds and all the stereotypes that are
present within our communities. We also need to recognise
intersectionality and privilege, as women are not homogenous and in a
country such as South Africa, women experience discrimination in very
Our reality is that black women are at the coalface of poverty and so the
lack of recognition given to their unpaid care work directly compounds
their discrimination, which impacts on their ability to access their right
to health, housing, land and education.
Statistics South Africa (2011) indicate that black African women spend the
most time on unpaid care work, doing 266 minutes (4.53 hours) on average
of unpaid care work per day, while black African males (the highest amount
on time spent on unpaid care work by a population group) only spend 105
minutes on unpaid care work per day.
We need to have a mindset shift in terms of reducing unpaid care work, or
women will continue to struggle to access rights guaranteed in our
Constitution. One such right is the right to choose a profession freely.
This right is directly linked to dignity and access to other
socio-economic rights. It must be equally available to men and women, but
it cannot be so if women are disproportionately burdened with care work in
their homes or community. The United Nations Committee on Economic Social
and Cultural Rights in their general comment on the right to work has
stated clearly that the right includes a right to work, but also to
conduct that work in an environment which is just and favourable. This
includes having the ability for promotion, equal pay for work of equal
value and a living and decent wage. Care work impacts on women’s ability
to work outside of the home and the full realisation of her rights.
In respect of women’s access to health care we must recognise the duty to
care for those who do the work. Too often women’s health care and access
ignore the burden of unpaid care work within the context of home and
community. In South Africa we have placed an enormous burden on community
health care workers to address the gaps in our health care system when
dealing with the HIV/Aids pandemic. These women are at the front line of
performing care work without recognition and proper remuneration.
As members of society we need to begin the task of examining how we
contribute to the burden of unpaid care work and how we can shift
patriarchy within our own homes and communities. The government also has a
critical role to play in ensuring that policies and laws that are passed
consider the existing burden of care on women. We need to build a society
where there is equal distribution of care work.
We need to examine the ways in which care work can be redistributed
between women and men within the context of family life. The government
has a critical role to play here to ensure access to maternity leave and
benefits for employed and self – employed women in all sectors, and that
leave provisions are extended to men to ensure that they meet their
We also need to examine how the government can redistribute care
responsibilities by taking over some of the responsibilities in respect of
child care through properly regulated and accessible early childhood
This relates to a resource allocation issue, and focused attention also
needs to be given to the implementation of quality effective government
services which impact on sexual reproductive and health rights. If this
functions efficiently, this would enable women to make informed decisions
about contraception and family planning.
Access to water and sanitation, which is often overlooked in urban areas,
have a critical influence on women carrying out unpaid care work in rural
areas and informal settlement. Due to a lack of service, they have to
carry out unnecessary additional labour which could be avoided if there
were adequate services available. It is far too often that issues which
are overlooked and not deemed urgent or important, are those that if
addressed, can have a lasting impact on the lives of women.
These are but some examples of how a lack of access to socio-economic
rights within a context directly impacts on women’s unpaid care work and
continues cycles of poverty that trap women and girls. The time has thus
come for us to have an open conversation about unpaid care work and its
true impact on women’s rights to substantive equality.
Charlene May is an attorney at the Women’s Legal Centre who heads up the
Relationship Rights Programme. Aisha Hamdulay is the Media and
Communications liason for the Women’s Legal Centre.