From ‘ordered estates’ to ‘crooked times’: farmworker welfare in Zimbabwe

A new book is just out – Ordered Estates: Welfare, Power and Maternalism on Zimbabwe’s (Once White) Highveld – by Andrew Hartnack, and published by Weaver and UKZN Press. It addresses many of the themes highlighted in the blogs of the past two weeks, and is based on research carried out over the last decade on a number of Highveld farms, as well as with farm worker welfare NGOs. Once you peel away the layering of sometimes unnecessary theory (it was originally an anthropology PhD so that’s the excuse!), the empirical stories shared in the book’s pages have much to offer our emerging understandings of post-land reform Zimbabwe (see also earlier blogs on his work).

Source: From ‘ordered estates’ to ‘crooked times’: farmworker welfare in Zimbabwe | zimbabweland November 21, 2016

The book fills an important gap in the literature, as it offers a nuanced account of the history of farm workers’ rights, as well as a reflection on changing fortunes since 2000. The ‘ordered estates’ of the colonial era have been much described. Blair Rutherford’s classic work from Karoi/Hurungwe told this story well, describing the constrained ‘domestic government’ that disciplined and controlled in the narrow, paternalistic world of white farms. Post-independence this reformed somewhat, and the limited sovereignties of the farms were extended as the state insisted on labour laws and other regulations, and NGOs took up the plight of farmworkers, creating new, more technical-bureaucratic, ‘practices of rule’.

This book deepens this analysis, particularly with a focus on ‘farmers’ wives’ and their role in welfare organisations – hence the reference to ‘maternalism’ in the title. It also shows of course that there was not one single approach to labour in white farming areas; not surprisingly all farms were different, depending on characters and contexts. The post-independence developmental attempts to modernise, civilise and improve resulted in a range of initiatives on the farms from schooling programmes to orphanages, often with heavy involvement of ‘farmers’ wives’. But by ‘rendering technical’ the inequalities of land and labour regimes, such welfare efforts did not address the underlying challenges, and welfare was more sticking plaster rather than fundamental reform. Following land reform in 2000, such NGOs have not found a new role, focusing on displacement, but not on the new lives and livelihoods of their former ‘beneficiaries’.

However, it is in the examination of the post-land reform period that this book cuts new ground. Building on, but also critiquing (as with some other recent literature somewhat gratuitously and inaccurately in my view), the important work of Walter Chambati, Sam Moyo and others, the book paints a detailed ethnographic picture of how farm workers carve out new opportunities in an highly challenging economic, social and political environment. This is the period of ‘crooked times’, where a ‘zig-zag’ approach to the kukiya-kiya economy is vital to survive. This is the world where there are no standard jobs – in the form of regular wage work – and where entrepreneurial informality emerges, with new forms of distribution, dependence and personhood, as James Ferguson describes for South Africa.  Whether in the case of the Harare peri-urban settlement described in Chapter 5 (discussed previously in this blog) or the biographies of former farm workers profiled in Chapter 7, mixing new farm work with urban living, the new precarities of life in the post land reform age are well described. New ‘modes of belonging’ must be generated, very different to the ordered safety, if extreme exploitation, of what went before.

What was missing from the book I felt was more detailed information who moved to what new occupations and where they ended up to provide the bigger-picture context to make sense of the fascinating detail. The book acknowledges the problems with the existing statistics, quoting both the CFU and other sources, and (somewhat bizarrely) just takes an average number, as a ‘middle way’. Getting a national picture may be impossible, but it would have been good to know what happened on those on the farms studied, and get a sense of how outcomes for farm workers were differentiated and why, in order to locate the few, if fascinating, individual cases.

There are hints though at wider patterns. Those few white farms that have persisted have often maintained a network of loyal farm workers, some who provide protection and support through their links, and the book offered an interesting case of this dynamic in Chapter 7. At various points, the book suggests (I think very accurately) that turnover on A2 farms was particularly damaging to farmworkers, as production collapsed and some A2 farmers did not maintain their operations. But it also suggests that ‘successful’ A2 farms nearby took on workers, and so there is often a regional labour economy that is important to understand on the new farms. The book did not however get into any detail on what happened post land reform to groups of farmworkers in farm labour compounds, and especially on the A1 farms (after all the largest areas), as we have been trying to do in Mvurwi. It therefore missed out on the dynamic described in the blogs over the last two weeks, of farmworkers becoming farmers – along with much else – in the new ‘crooked times’ of the last 16 years.

Despite shortcomings (this was after all a single researcher doing a research degree, so no blame there), this is a most valuable contribution, and coming from a white Zimbabwean (as he admits not from a farming background) perhaps especially powerful. When you next hear misinformed statements about Zimbabwe’s former farmworkers, please turn to this book for an informed, nuanced account that sets an important agenda for future research and policy debate.

This post was written by Ian Scoones and appeared on Zimbabweland


  • comment-avatar
    ntaba 5 years ago

    Hey Scoonsie – you seem to have missed the real point in terms of the context! You – with your mates Mugabe and Gono have created the “crooked times” in the first place!! The Agrarian Reform you speak about is simply Crooked – just as your mates Lord Mendelson, Vladmir Putin and the President of Syria all believe that they have done a woderful job in Syria!! Your other mate Walter Mzembi is busy in the UK trying woo the diaspora – I wonder if you or Mugabe, Gono, or Mzembi have ever done a study at the IDC as to why there is a diapsora in the first place? From the outside it is as obvious a dog’s ball what you have all done to Zimbabwe – but some how the IDC and Zanu appear to think that they are all doing a wonderful job!! Jonathon Moyo is your ultimate Joker or Soothsayer and will tell the world what a brilliant team you all are – professors and doctors of this and that. Now Patrick Anthony Chimamasa is going to have go with Bond notes. I suggest that you all get hold of the the dies to print Euros, Pula, Rands, US dollars, UK Pounds and Australian Dollars while you are about it – I mean why not print a multi currency option? Zimbabwe will become the wealthiest nation in the world with all that currency – surely?

  • comment-avatar
    harper 5 years ago

    Mutual admiration club, Scones praises Hartnack and Hartnack praises Scones. The mistake so many academics make is to form an opinion and then bend the facts to fit. Hartnack senior, a tiger for accurate factual reporting, would be very ashamed of his son.

  • comment-avatar
    Andrew Hartnack 5 years ago

    Read the book, Harper (whoever you may be), and please quote me the exact passage where I praise Scoones. Otherwise you are nothing more than a willfully ignorant internet troll.

    • comment-avatar
      ntaba 5 years ago

      It may well be time to get down to business in terms of productivity and integrity in all facets of the ecomony – but with a massive Zanu parasite thinking that it is owed a living for ever and ever amen – it may be difficult to find the wiling horse or ox to pull the plough for Zanu to get fat? With no security of tenure there can be no confidence and no investment. The reason is given in the article – Mugabe with Scoones have created the Crooked Times. Colur and Creed have been a convenient war cry for Zanu to steal all they wish for. Add a UK Professor from IDC to the whole exercise and now they believe that they have some form of Intellectual Integrity to rip, rob and rape – and the nutty professor gives a bemused smile trying portray total innocence for his Zanu collaboration? Interesting?

  • comment-avatar
    Clodbuster 5 years ago

    What a load of tripe. Standard white bashing and black eulogising. The begging bowl is out yet again.

  • comment-avatar
    ntaba 5 years ago

    Scoonsie – it is now time that you were held to account for what you, Mugabe and Gono have done to the people of Zimbabwe. Quite a lot of the alleged Land Reform would be more aptly described as Land Deform. With your support of lawlessness under the guise of land reform you have made the country a lawless state. It would be good to see how you would reform agriculture in say Europe, North America, Australia and South America given your track record in Zimbabwe? It would appear that Mugabe, Gono, Chinamasa and yourself are still telling all and sundry about what a wonderful job you have all done! If the country is now so good under your Mugabe/Scoonsie Presiption – why would Patrick Anthony be so keen to print money again? Alan Savory has correctly pointed out that agriculture creates New Money – in the form of Solar Dollars captured from the sun. Why is it that there is an agricultural boom in Zambia but not so in Zimbabwe? We have Dr. Mugabe, Dr. Gono, Dr. Chinamasa and Professor Scoones but still the Government is saying that they will print their way out of trouble? As with an alcoholic – one more drink and I will stop – so it has been destroy one more farm and then we shall stop and also one more Nond Note and then we will stop? Printing money and stealing farms by addicts such as yourselves is like thinking that if you give a drug addict some more Ice he will feel better!!