Zimbabwean graduate migrants are more than just ‘British bottom cleaners’

via Zimbabwean graduate migrants are more than just ‘British bottom cleaners’ 21 February 2014

Zimbabwean migrants to Britain are often referred to by those at home as being the BBC – British bottom cleaners – fit only for the most menial roles in the former colonial “mother country”.

But our research on the experiences of Zimbabwean graduate migrants paints a very different and much more complex picture. Those able to use professional networks, such as in engineering, can find getting good jobs relatively easy.

Still, the experiences of these graduate migrants has been affected by their lack of a British notion of employability. They have to get to know the workings of social networks and gender relations, and deal with the often negative effects of the UK immigration system.

Mixed luck

Let’s start with a piece of good news: some Zimbabwean graduate migrants have moved effortlessly into jobs in Britain. This was easiest where they had professional qualifications or registrations that had market value in Britain.

One electrical engineer recalled:

I said, ‘I’m a qualified engineer, I’m a chartered engineer with the Engineering Council UK,’ [so] they don’t need to ask me any further questions that was the basis on which my visa was actually issued.

Equally, a medical researcher said:

We could register with the UK Health and Care Professionals Council (HCPC), while still in Zimbabwe. I came in on Friday, and Monday I was starting work.

For others, however, the story has not been so rosy. One lawyer spoke of the challenges he faced because of being trained in Roman-Dutch law: a radically different tradition to that in England. Several found the British process of getting a job alien, at least at first.

In Zimbabwe, education has a massive social and economic premium and huge emphasis is placed on qualifications. Yet in England, the interview process and the selling of one’s own personal narrative takes much greater prominence. A psychologist, who had successfully learnt to adapt, reflected: “In Zimbabwe maybe you go for an interview and you tell them all the academic things. Here the approach becomes different, you’re selling yourself”.

For some women, gender relations undermined their employability. Our most striking interview was with a former adviser to a very senior politician. She recounted how she had decided that if her husband could not find a professional job, who was she to think she would succeed?

“My husband had a Masters as well, but he couldn’t get any relevant job. He was just doing things in order to survive,” she said. “So when I came I was also prepared just to do things in order to survive. So, I just joined him [in a call centre].”

Held back by asylum process

This very powerful woman was really a political refugee. She had left her influential role due to disenchantment with government policy, rather than through the asylum route.

But for various reasons many other Zimbabwean graduates have had to use the UK’s asylum system to enter the country. This has had serious consequences as it means many asylum seekers have been channelled into ethnic clusters when they arrive in the UK.

Among those who found themselves caught up within the cumbersome asylum processes was a young sociology graduate. “I came thinking of studying and getting a professional job afterwards but the kind of social circles that I got entangled in here in the UK were the wrong ones,” he remembered. “The belief was ‘it doesn’t really help to get an education or try a professional job. We are here to make money’.” Faced with the constant prospect of deportation, career goals seemed irrelevant.

For some, however, the potential for descent into the “BBC” nightmare had resulted in a happy ending. An accountant recalled: “I remember one day I said, ‘I’m not a carer, I’m an accountant.’” He decided to go to an employment agency and, after an initial struggle, got from there back to accountancy.

The sociologist graduate later went on to get his PhD and a professional career. The downward pull of his his social networks from his time as an asylum seeker became an upward push. His first “real job” in Britain gave him the confidence to re-establish connections with Zimbabwean migrant professionals to match his recovered identity as a professional. “When I got my first job, my social circles also changed as well. My professional friends played a part, because I was now in touch with many of my friends that I had been in touch with in Zimbabwe … This changed my focus to my original plans to do the things I’ve always desired to do.”

Even for those professionals that do end up amongst the “BBC”, there can be a better future. But there is a note of sadness to all these experiences of graduate migrants. Their strong belief in the power of education helped these graduates succeed in education at home, secure high status jobs with elite lifestyles, and take the momentous decision to seek a better life in Britain.

But no matter how successful they had become in Britain, their relative status was still less than it had been at home: the distinction of being a graduate was simply much smaller. What struck us discussing the interviews was their dissatisfaction that they had not succeeded as they could not recreate their Harare lifestyles. We hope that such dissatisfaction will pass in time in the face of their very real achievements.


  • comment-avatar
    Benjamin 8 years ago

    Enjoyed your article and my general observation is that the problems faced by Zimbabwean professionals in UK applies to a lot of Zimbabweans in other countries.Our environment back home put a lot of emphasis in education but when you arrive in another country you sometimes find that your education is not as valuable as your thought.This is quite frustrating and you end up giving up your goals and just do anything in order to survive especially in South Africa.

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      gwabu 8 years ago

      I find this saying that our education system is not relevant or too academic to be unrealistic. Cambridge o or a level is an international qualification set by the british. our zimsec if modelled on the Cambridge system and its claimed to be much harder than the Cambridge version.

      people need to highlight what is different from the uk eduation system and this international qualification. I believe its just nonsensicalbecause most Zimbabwean graduates have succeeded the world over. am proud of our education system.

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        Gwabu, I agree with you 1 million percent, the education in Zimbabwe is advanced, the problem is, how to get a scholarship in Zimbabwe. It is not easy to get a scholarsip to continue with education. I tried to apply for a scholarship to study mathematics in Cuba. I came out with distinctions at O Level and A level. That is why I decided to immigrate to UK to continue with my studies because they can provide opportunities for people willing to continue with education.

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    Tjingababili 8 years ago

    I still enjoy being in the UK! Have enjoyed my holidays in Zim and going back to that cold little island on Monday! Today am in Marondera for the Pres Birthday bash!! Nine zero, that is old!

  • comment-avatar
    Roving Ambassador 8 years ago

    Please, bash him for me as well.

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    John Thomas 8 years ago

    That’s it. Those who sympathise most with the ZANU view of the world are often first to flee from the consequences. To the UK for example. There are many members of ZANU families there. Mugabe himself would spend a lot of time there if he could. I am sure he would prefer British doctors if he had the option.

    Being educated is not the same as being trustworthy, capable and responsible. This is a very big area of confusion for Zimbabweans.

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    I hold a degree in Forensic science, a diploma in Healthcare Science, experience in Acute Medical Geriatric unit working with high acute patients. I gained my practicl experience in Australia. It is not easy to get the job of your dream in UK, many Zimbabweans whom I know in America, Canada and Australia are better off than those in UK with high academic qualifications and experience. Sometimes I always think to go back to Mozambique or Zimbabwe, unfortunately it is difficult to make that decision because of employment problems in Africa. Hope things will change in near future. May God bless all your works and live with hope! Always expect a beautiful outcome.

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      Bude brother that is not the point. Your degree would only help in Zimbabwe if you are Zanu .

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    mkast 8 years ago

    fellow country men in the diaspora you have acquired knowledge come and open businesses for yourselves in Zimbabwe the situation presents a lot of opportunities , you can open schools,clinics,start mining and farming don’t let your hate of your president cloud your thinking opportunities are there for the taking if you want to escape being bottom cleaners in foreign lands , just imagine the sense of satisfaction in serving your own pple relatives ,kids e.t.c . politics aside learned Zimbabweans are missing a lot of opportunities by involving themselves unnecessarily in hate politics those who whine in diaspora never spare an effort to come and vote . i know most of you will disagree with me with your elitist attitude .

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    Ndebvu Mukomichi 8 years ago

    Home is best: Good comment! Dump the hate and come home at the drop of a hat!

    • comment-avatar

      Thank you comrade for your advise. The only problem is of employment when I am back home. I tried to do my research on line in connection with employment, it seems people with my qualifications are finding it more difficult to get the job back home. Therefore, I am trying to give a go to another degree.

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    jobolinko 8 years ago

    Each man for himself and God for us all what ever a zimbabwean could be doing outside zimbabwe i say hats off to them its better than attending Robert mugabe s birthday., Mugabe says he wants to go to europe for what when he s got everything in zimbabwe ,i…..c thinkig zanu bootlickers.