Mugove Tafirenyika 6 August 2017
HARARE – Mining companies in which government has an interest are the
worst violators of environmental regulations because they insist on
starting operations before fulfilling some of the conditions precedent, it
has been revealed.
Before mining companies can start operations, they must comply with a raft
of requirements, among them regulations to do with the protection of the
It is, however, emerging that some of the mining firms linked to
government exploit the country’s mineral wealth before even obtaining
Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) certificates issued by the
Environmental Management Agency (Ema).
This was revealed by Ema’s EIA expert, Phanuel Mangisi, at a two-day
Zimbabwe Parliamentary Journalists Forum, which ended in Harare on Friday.
Mangisi said environmental management in the extractive industry could
remain a pipe-dream without the political will on the part of authorities.
“We will also need political help because we have no problems with private
companies such as Mimosa and others; it is government-linked companies
that insist on commencing before EIA plans are on place,” Mangisi said.
An EIA is an assessment of the possible impacts that a proposed project
may have on the environment, consisting of the environmental, social and
EIA are necessary in guiding decision-makers to consider the social,
economic and environmental impacts that mining operations might have when
deciding whether or not to proceed with a project.
The Environmental Management Act (CAP 20:27) and Statutory Instrument 7 of
2007 compels prescribed projects listed under the first schedule of the
Ema Act (CAP 20:27) to undergo an EIA process prior to implementation.
The initial stage is to submit a prospectus to Ema, which has 20 days to
view the prospectus.
When the prospectus has been approved, the developer should engage a
registered, independent consultant to prepare an EIA report in terms of
section 98 of the Act.
Mangisi bemoaned the lack of adequate funding which diminishes their
ability to enforce regulations and ensure best international best
practices in environmental management.
“Since three years ago, we have not been getting government funding and
have been relying on what we get form fines. The principle is that the
polluter must correct the damage he or she has caused to the environment
but you find that is not happening and we have had to use our own
resources to do it.
“I must also say it should be noted that the fines for environmental
crimes are not deterrent enough so you will notice that people continue to
commit crimes, which explains why we have been lobbying for an
environmental court,” he added.
Meanwhile, the Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association legal researcher,
Tafadzwa Dhlakama, called on communities in natural resource-rich areas to
be proactive in demanding that companies comply with the law so that their
environmental and socio-economic rights are not violated.
Dhlakama said failure to monitor EIAs had resulted in several mineral rich
communities being left impoverished with massive environmental degradation
that results in loss of socio-cultural rights.
EIAs are a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a
proposed project or development, taking into account interrelated
socio-economic, cultural and human health impacts, both beneficial and
“Section 97 of the Environmental Management Act makes it mandatory that
companies cannot commence with their projects without EIAs, and it is not
optional because most of the projects are big and involve construction of
dams, mining, and energy projects that can displace communities or affect
the environment,” Dhlakama said.
“Community members must follow up on EIAs to find out if companies are
violating them because the concerns may be to do with compensation, water
pollution, and burial sites and deep pits that can be left by mining
He also emphasised that when formulating EIAs, it was imperative for
companies to first conduct public meetings with communities and
traditional leaders as well as other interest groups about the structure
of their environmental management plans as they undertake their project.
Dhlakama also revealed that some companies were not keen on producing EIAs
because they are expensive, with companies charged 2,5 percent to three
percent of the value of the project towards EIAs.
Several mining towns in the country particularly Kwekwe have suffered
severe land degradation that is threatening infrastructure such as rail
In other areas such as farming communities in Marange and Zvishavane,
disused mines have become death traps for livestock while in other areas
siltation of rivers such as Mazowe has reached alarming levels.
Although it is a legal requirement to have an EIA before beginning
operations, some firms have been operating without one.